Edinburgh is considered to be one of the most colorful cities in Great Britain. The city was founded in the X – XI centuries, and in the period from the XV to the XVII centuries. was the capital of Scotland.
According to THERELIGIONFAQS, Edinburgh impresses with an abundance of sights, for which it was even called the “Northern Athens”. 16,000 buildings are listed as the city’s most important historical and architectural structures, many are part of the World Cultural Heritage.
The most famous monument is Edinburgh Castle, standing on a cliff at a height of 133 m and towering over the entire city. According to historical evidence, the castle has existed since the 11th century, but the first buildings on this site appeared almost 1400 years ago. From the 11th to the 16th centuries the castle was the seat of the Scottish monarchy. It is currently the seat of the Scottish Army Unit. Its most remarkable building is the royal palace with an octagonal tower, where Mary Stuart gave birth to King James I. The castle was constantly being completed and expanded – until 1927, when a War Memorial was erected dedicated to the Scots who fell in the First World War (now also to the victims Second World War). The oldest building of this complex is the chapel of St. Margaret. Edinburgh Castle is not only a royal residence, but, first of all, fortification building. This is constantly reminded by bastions, fortress walls, devoid of ornamentation and other architectural excesses, but striking in their power, ancient guns installed on them, including the famous Mons Meg cannon, cast in 1457. One of the cannons, but more modern, is regularly used for traditional volleys at noon. At the gates of the castle there is an esplanade – a small area intended for parades. Every year, at the end of August, the main action of the colorful festival of military bands from all over the world takes place here, which traditionally opens with a performance of Scottish bagpipers and drummers. The castle houses the Museum of the Scottish United Forces, and in the Palace you can see a collection of royal jewelry.
To the east of the castle is the Old Town (medieval). On the famous Royal Mile, you can see the unusual architecture of the Cathedral of St. Giles, the majestic building of the city meeting, numerous monuments and old houses. The street leads to the Palace of Holyroodhouse (House of the Holy Cross). It has been a royal residence in various periods since the 16th century. Mary Stuart lived in this palace most of her life. The palace is still the official residence of the crown in Scotland, so access is limited. You can see only some of the chambers, walk around a certain part of the surrounding area and the ruins of the abbey. The museum located here has an excellent collection of antique furniture, jewelry and portraits of Scottish kings. On Calton Hill, around which the Old City is located, several architectural monuments were collected at once: the National Monument, the Nelson Monument and two observatories, one of which has now been turned into a museum. The national monument was created in memory of those who died in the Napoleonic wars. The monument was originally conceived as a “copy” of the Athenian Parthenon, consisting of 64 columns, but the lack of funds made it possible to build only one-fifth of what was planned. Climbing up to the observation deck of the Nelson monument, you will have an inimitable view of the panorama but the lack of financial resources made it possible to build only one-fifth of what was planned. Climbing up to the observation deck of the Nelson monument, you will have an inimitable view of the panorama but the lack of financial resources made it possible to build only one-fifth of what was planned. Climbing up to the observation deck of the Nelson monument, you will have an inimitable view of the panorama Edinburgh and the bay.
To the north is an area called the New City. Despite the name, its construction dates back to the 18th century. Here are the monument of Walter Scott, the building of the Royal Bank of Scotland on St. Andrew’s Square (the patron saint of Scotland) and Charlotte Square with beautiful buildings of the 18th century.
In Edinburgh there are the famous National Gallery of Scotland and the Portrait Gallery, the Royal Museum, the Museum of Modern History and the History of Scotland. The National Gallery is one of the oldest art galleries in Scotland. It opened to the public in 1859. Here you can see paintings, sculptures of various periods – from the Renaissance to Post-Impressionism, representing the art of many European countries.
In Edinburgh Every year in August, the International Festival of Music and Drama “Fringe” (“On the Edge”) is held, one of a kind in terms of the scope and variety of the arts represented (dance, music, theater, circus, etc.).
An hour’s drive from Edinburgh, on the seashore, is the small old town of St. Andrews, where the oldest Scottish university and the oldest golf course in the country are located. Noteworthy is the Isle of Arran, which can be reached by ferry from Androssan. The island has a museum “Scotland in Miniature”. Half an hour from the city is Stirling – a very beautiful old university city.