The unique cultural and garden landscape, which was inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment, extends over 142 km². Castles, temples, parks and meadows come together to create a harmonious work of landscape art, which was created by Prince Leopold III between 1765 and 1800. Friedrich Franz von Anhalt-Dessau and the architect Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff.
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz: Facts
|Official title:||Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz|
|Cultural monument:||Landscape park with English parks, pastures, lakes, bridges, castles and temples on 142 km²|
|Country:||Germany, see ezinereligion|
|Location:||between Dessau-Roßlau and Wittenberg|
|Meaning:||Outstanding example for the implementation of philosophical principles of the Enlightenment in a landscape design; Harmonious combination of art, education and business|
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz: History
|1004||First mention of Wörlitz|
|around 1440||Naming of Wörlitz as a city|
|1764-1813||Creation and design of the landscape on behalf of Prince Leopold III. Friedrich Franz von Anhalt-Dessau by the builder Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff and the gardeners Johann Friedrich Eyserbeck, Johann Christian Neumark and Johann Georg Schoch|
|1769-1773||Construction of Wörlitz Castle in the early classical style|
|1773-1813||Construction of the Gothic House|
|1767/68||Construction of the nymphaeum|
|1794||Construction of the Temple of Venus|
|1795-1797||Construction of the Pantheon|
|18th and 19th centuries||Princely summer residence|
|since 2000||World Heritage|
A special implementation of educational principles
Framed by the cities of Dessau-Roßlau, Oranienburg-Wörlitz and Wittenberg, a cultural landscape is harmoniously embedded between lakes and rivers, forests, meadows and fields that you will not find anywhere else in Germany: the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz. It was created in the second half of the 18th century under Prince Leopold III. von Anhalt-Dessau (* 1740, † 1817), who wanted to implement the principles of the Enlightenment with numerous castles and extensive parks. Here, architecture and fine arts are in perfect harmony with the landscape – be it with the parks, which were modeled on English landscape gardens, or with the natural floodplain landscape on the Elbe and Mulde. The Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Kingdom has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000.
Leopold III is responsible for the unique landscape artwork. Prince of Anhalt-Dessau and his advisor, the architect Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff (* 1736, † 1800). During numerous trips to France, Italy, England and the Netherlands, they got ideas for their unique project of »country beautification«. In the years 1765 to 1810, the castles and gardens of Wörlitz and Oranienbaum, the Luisium, the Georgium, Großkühnau Castle with the vineyards and the “designed wilderness” on the Sieglitzer Berg were built. The individual gardens are connected by avenues, dyke paths and lines of sight, so that a closed garden landscape was created, which contemporaries called the »garden realm«.
In the Age of Enlightenment, nature was rediscovered and architects tried to integrate buildings into the designed nature. This project succeeded extremely well in the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz. The model for the garden design were the English parks, which combined the beautiful, such as palace buildings, with the useful, for example pastures or fruit trees. Antiquity was also a popular motif of the Enlightenment: with classicism an attempt was made to tie in with ancient, especially Greek, architectural styles. In the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz this happened, among other things, with the classicistic Wörlitz Castle. But the Temple of Venus or the Pantheon in the eastern part of the Wörlitz complex are also reminiscent of ancient models. Enlightenment principles can also be seen in the openness of the facilities. Everyone should be allowed to enter the grounds and even visit the castle; therefore no fence separates the garden from the city. Prince Leopold III also pursued educational concepts, such as those presented by the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (* 1712, † 1778). with its parks: In the garden of Wörlitz Palace, 19 different bridge types from the ford to Venetian and Chinese bridges to cast iron bridges illustrate the development of bridge construction. With all these elements, the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz also expresses the worldview of its time. with its parks: In the garden of Wörlitz Palace, 19 different bridge types from the ford to Venetian and Chinese bridges to cast iron bridges illustrate the development of bridge construction. With all these elements, the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz also expresses the worldview of its time. with its parks: In the garden of Wörlitz Palace, 19 different bridge types from the ford to Venetian and Chinese bridges to cast iron bridges illustrate the development of bridge construction. With all these elements, the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz also expresses the worldview of its time.