The southwestern part of Croatia belongs to the Dinaric Alps and is a golden karst mountain landscape. The mountains reach several places from 1500 to well over 1800 meters above sea level. The highest point is Dinara with 1831 meters above sea level. The most economically important area is the flat and fertile northeastern Croatia with Slavonia, which has drains through the rivers Sava and Drava to the Danube.
Almost the entire coast of former Yugoslavia (to the Gulf of Kotor in the south) belongs to Croatia. The country has a coastline of 6,178 km. A total of 1244 Croatian islands, islets and islets are located in the Adriatic Sea. To the north are the five largest islands of Krk, Cres, Brač, Hvar and Korčula.
Croatia has continental inland and Mediterranean coastal climate. The eastern parts of the country have the most pronounced continental climate.
In Osijek in eastern Croatia, the average temperature is –1 ° C in January and 19 ° C in July. In the capital Zagreb, the average temperature is 1 ° C in January and 22 ° C in July.
|HOTTEST MONTH||COLDEST MONTH|
|Split||July||31 ° C||20 ° C||January||11 ° C||4 ° C|
|Zagreb||July||27 ° C||16 ° C||January||2 ° C||-4 ° C|
The temperatures stated are the average daily maximum and minimum for the month in question.
The annual rainfall is about 750 mm inland and about 900 mm in the coastal areas.
|ANNUAL rainfall||WETTEST MONTH||DRYEST MONTH|
|Split||890 mm||October, December||112 mm||July||30 mm|
|Zagreb||885 mm||June, October||99 mm||January||46 mm|
Plant life in Croatia
Inland vegetation in the lowlands consists of summer green deciduous forests, in the mountains of beech, fir, pine and spruce forests. In the mountains on the coast, the vegetation is sometimes lush and rich in species. In the lowland on the coast and on the islands, the original vegetation is largely gone and replaced with maquis and other man-made biotopes.
Wildlife in Croatia
The mammalian fauna in Croatia includes 76 species, including wild boar, deer, golden jackal, fox and many marsh animals. Bears, wolves and hides occur in remote areas.
224 of the more than 370 bird species recorded are breeding. Along the Adriatic coast, there are, among other things, dwarf cormorants, seven herring species, bronze ice cream and white- eyed duck. The birds of prey include sea eagles, snake eagles, king eagles, goose vultures, donkey vultures and many falcons. Colorful species bee-eater, kingfisher, rock thrush, pirol, Stillits and black-headed bunting are common.
Croatia has 34 reptile, 10 amphibian and 112 species of fish.
Geography and environment
Croatia includes the landscapes of Croatia, southern Istria, Slavonia and Dalmatia. A middle part of the hinterland consists of hills and mountains, and a northeastern part is lower with fertile soil. The highest mountain is Dinara, which is 1831 meters above sea level. The coastline is 6178 kilometers long and has an archipelago of 1244 islands, islets and islets. From the north are the largest islands of Krk, Cres, Brač, Hvar and Korčula. The longest river is Sava and the largest lake is Vransko jezero (30.7 square kilometers). There are several karst landscapes, especially in the Dinar Alps in the southwest.
There are Mediterranean coastal and continental climates inland, especially in the east. The coldest month is January (average −3 ° C) and the warmest month is July (average 18 ° C). The annual rainfall varies from about 750 millimeters inland to about 900 millimeters on the coast.
Flora and fauna are very species rich. There are 5636 species of vascular plants recorded, of which 523 are endemic (native). Of mammals, 101 species have been identified, including beaver, brown bear, lynx, wolf, moth, otter, elk and wild boar. A total of 387 bird species, 41 species of reptiles and 20 species of amphibians, including wild salamanders and cave salamanders, 152 species of freshwater fish and 442 species of saltwater fish have been recorded.