As part of European continent defined by Countryaah, Northern Europe includes Estonia, Ireland and Latvia. This page describes major mass media, including newspapers, radio stations and televisions within these countries.
Mass media in Estonia
Estonia has 16 daily newspapers (2006) with a total circulation of just over 330,000; by the way, a number of weekly newspapers and journals. The country’s first newspaper was published in German in 1689, the first in Estonian in 1766. The first significant newspaper was Postimees (Postiljongen, founded in 1857); in independent wartime independent Estonia, the newspapers played an important role as public informers and news sources, and the most important of these years was Eesti Päevaleht (Estonian Dagblad, founded in 1905). Both are still published with circulation (2008) of 63,600 and 36,400, respectively. From 1940, when the country was annexed by the Soviet Union, the press became unified as part of the Communist Party apparatus. This continued until democratization in 1989 and the liberalization of the press that followed. Old newspapers renamed the Communists eventually got their former name back. This was true of both Postimees and Eesti Päevaleht; the first is now owned by Norwegian Schibsted, the second by two Estonian investors. Other major daily newspapers are Öhtuleht (Kveldsposten), founded in 2000 (circulation 59 100), and Äripäev (Dagens Næringsliv), founded in 1989 (circulation 23 400). Own newspapers are also published for the Russian population.
Radio and television
Radio broadcasting started in 1926. The state Eesti Raavusringhääling (Estonia’s national broadcasting, abbreviated ERR) has five nationwide radio channels (three in Estonian, one in English and one in Russian). A number of private, local stations broadcast on the FM band. Television broadcasts started in 1955; The ERR has a channel that broadcasts programs in Estonian and Russian. Private Advertising Advertising Tallinn started broadcasting in 1992; Since 1993, several private, advertising-financed Estonian channels have grown larger, and gradually gained foreign owners. Channel 2 (Schibsted) and TV 3 (Modern Times Group). For the rest, broadcasts of Russian television take place. Estonia also receives Finnish television broadcasts.
Mass media in Ireland
Although the country has two official languages, all seven daily newspapers and the major weekly newspapers are published in English. Five daily newspapers are published in Dublin: Evening Herald (founded in 1891, circulation 2007: approximately 82,000), The Irish Times (founded in 1859, circulation approximately 119,000), Irish Daily Mail (circulation approximately 56,400), Irish Daily Star (circulation: about 98,000) and the largest, Irish Independent (founded in 1905, circulation about 160,800). The Irish Newspapers daily newspapers (founded in 1841, circulation approx. 55 900) and Evening Echo (founded in 1892, circulation approx. 25 700) are published in Cork. There are four national Sunday newspapers, the two largest being: Sunday Independent (founded in 1905, circulation approximately 282 500) and Sunday World (founded in 1973, circulation approximately 283 800). A peculiar feature of the Irish press is the large number of weekly newspapers published in the provinces.
Radio and television
The national broadcasting company is called Radio Telefís Éireann (RTE), and was established in 1960. Both radio and television are financed through a combination of government grants, license fees and advertising revenues. Radio broadcasting started in Ireland in 1926, television broadcasting in 1961. In 1978, a second television channel was received and the year after a second radio channel. Until 1988, RTE had a monopoly, but from then on private broadcasting has been allowed. There are now more than 25 private local radio stations. In 1998 came a private nationwide television channel (TV3) and a private nationwide radio (Today FM). RTE now has six nationwide radio networks; one of them, Radio Gaeltachta, based in Connemara, has broadcasts in Irish (Gaelic) for the western part of the country, as well as two television channels in English and from 1996 one (TG4) in Irish.
Mass media in Latvia
The first independent and uncensored newspapers in Latvia after the Soviet era came out in the late 1980’s. In the 1990’s, production costs increased sharply, which resulted in increased retail prices for newspapers and magazines and thus a sharp decline in sales. In 1994, there were a total of 17 daily newspapers in Latvia, in 2002 the number fell to 8. The largest is the newspaper Diena (day), founded in 1990, which is published in both Russian and Latvian, with a total circulation of 62,000 (2002). From 1992 this newspaper has been owned by the Swedish Expressen.
Radio broadcasting started in 1925, a new channel came in 1948 and television broadcasts began in 1954. In 1993, the public service companies Latvijas Radio and Latvijas Televizija started a third radio channel and a second TV channel. The public service broadcasting is financed through the state budget. Since it was opened for commercial broadcasting in 1991, a number of new radio and TV channels have emerged. At the beginning of the 2000’s, there were approx. 25 radio stations and one private television company, Latvian Independent Television (LNT), formed in 1996, in addition to the state. The state broadcaster has radio broadcasts in Latvian, Russian, Swedish and English. There are television broadcasts in Latvian, Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, German, English and French.