Mass Media in Australia
As the largest country in the continent of Oceania ranked by Countryaah, Australia has over 60 daily newspapers with a total circulation of over 4 million. The daily press is regional; most – and also the largest – newspapers only have circulation within one state. The only newspapers of national spread are The Australian (owned by Rupert Murdoch) and the Australian Financial Review. In addition to these are the weekly magazines The Bulletin, Time Australia and Business Review Weekly. The newspapers have increasingly been gathered in a few strong ownership groups.
Radio and television
Alongside the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), a large number of private, commercial radio and television stations operate in two large organizations. Radio and television are used extensively for educational purposes, and their own broadcasting companies broadcast programs aimed at indigenous people. Television broadcasts got underway in 1956.
Mass media in Kiribati
Two weekly newspapers are published in Bairiki, in addition to the Catholic and Protestant churches publishing their own monthly newspaper. The most important of the weekly newspapers is Te Uekera (founded in 1945, circulation approx. 2000). It is published by the state broadcasting company that operates Radio Kiribati. It was started in 1954, and broadcasts in English and I-Kiribati. It has also established Television Kiribati, which is currently broadcasting programs from CNN and the Australian ABC as well as some locally produced programs.
Mass media in the Marshall Islands
Three newspapers are published, the largest is the Marshall Islands Journal, which is published twice a week (edition 2004: 3700). A state-owned radio station broadcasts in English and local languages. In addition, there are two private radio stations.
Mass Media in the Federation of Micronesia
Four newspapers are published, two of them every fortnight, two of them once a month. The state broadcaster has regional broadcasts in four channels. The state also operates a television company, and in addition, three commercial television companies operate.
Mass media in Nauru
The country has three newspapers, two of which come out every 14 days. The most important is the Nasero Bulletin, which brings news in Nauru and English. The state-owned Nauru Broadcasting Service broadcasts radio and television programs in the same languages. Television broadcasts started in 1991, and most programs are produced by Television New Zealand Ltd.
Mass Media in New Zealand
In 2001, New Zealand had 25 daily newspapers, seven morning newspapers and 18 afternoon newspapers. By far the biggest is the New Zealand Herald which is published in Auckland (founded in 1863, edition 2004: 215,000). In addition there are 12 weekly newspapers and a large number of periodical publications. The daily press is dominated by the companies Independent Newspapers Ltd. and Wilson and Horton Ltd., which together control approx. 90% of the market.
In 1988, the state broadcaster was divided into two: Radio New Zealand Ltd. and Television New Zealand Ltd. The radio broadcasts in three channels (without advertising) and operates over 50 local radio stations which are advertising funded. In addition, there are approx. 180 private radio stations. Television New Zealand produces programs for two television networks, both of which are advertising-funded. The broadcasts reach 99.9% of the population. TV NZ started satellite television to the Pacific Islands in the early 1990’s, including Fiji. New Zealand has had private television stations since 1989. TV3 and Sky Network.
Mass media in Papua New Guinea
There are three daily newspapers, of which the independent Papua New Guinea Post-Courier, owned by News Corp., with a circulation of approx. 35,000 items is the biggest. It is published in English in Port Moresby. There are also several weekly newspapers, in English or local languages, several of them with public institutions such as publishers.
A national radio station broadcasts in English pidgin, motu, melanesian and approx. 30 local languages. In addition, there are two other commercial stations. An Australian television company started broadcasting on Papua New Guinea in 1987. This television station, EM TV, still broadcasts predominantly Australian programs.
Mass media in Samoa
Two daily newspapers are published in Apia, The Samoa Observer (founded in 1979, edition 2004: approx. 4500) and Samoa News (founded in 1994 by merging with the weekly newspaper Samoa Times) and two weekly newspapers, in both Samoan and English. A state radio station, the Samoa Broadcasting Service (founded in 1948), which is partly advertising-funded, broadcasts in the same two languages. It also relays broadcasts from Australian and New Zealand radio. In 1989, a private radio channel was established and later a channel broadcasting gospel music emerged. The state television company Televise Samoa Corporation, started with assistance from New Zealand television, has had its own broadcasts from 1993. It makes its own broadcasts, but also broadcasts programs from Australia’s ATV. In addition, sections of the population may include American Samoa television.
Mass media in Tuvalu
The country has freedom of the press, but the market is very small. An official newspaper, Sikuleo o Tuvalu / Tuvalu Echoes, used to appear every 14 days in Tuvalu and English, but only in a few hundred copies. The religious journal Te Lama is published occasionally. The state Radio Tuvalu, founded in 1975, broadcasts in Tuvalu and English. It also relays the BBC World Service. The country does not have its own TV station, but via satellite you get some foreign TV broadcasts.
Mass media in Palau
In addition to the government’s monthly newsletter, the Palau Gazette, three independent newspapers are published; once a week (Palau Horizon, circulation about 1500), once a week (Roureur Belau) and one every other week (Tia Belau, circulation about 1500). Palau has six radio and two television stations, all private.
Mass media in Tonga
Tonga has a short press history. The country’s oldest newspaper, a monthly newspaper, was started in 1931. The state-owned radio and television companies favor the government’s views and from 2003 the state has gained greater control over the media.
The country has no daily newspapers, but two weekly newspapers and several newspapers that come less frequently. The weekly newspaper Tonga Chronicle / Kalonikali Tonga, published in both Tongan and English (circulation approx. 6000), was founded by the government in 1964. A New Zealand-based newspaper, The Times of Tonga / Koe Taimi’o Tonga (circulation approx. 8000)), was attempted to be stopped by the authorities in 2004.
The Tonga Broadcasting Commission started radio broadcasting in 1961. Commercial broadcasting in Tongan and English. Oceania Broadcasting Inc. began broadcasting US television broadcasts to Tonga in 1991.