With the French Revolution the repercussions were felt also in Monaco. In January 1793 it was annexed to France and became Porto Ercole. The Treaty of Vienna of 1815 assigned the protectorate of Monaco to the Kingdom of Sardinia. The new relationship was regulated by the Treaty of Stupinigi of November 8, 1817.
With the constitutional reforms that shook Italy throughout the century, Menton and Roccabruna were recognized as free cities. The principality was then reduced to Monaco alone, always manned by Sardinian troops. On the withdrawal of these for the known events of the Italian Risorgimento, in February 1861 the two cities were ceded to France, for pecuniary compensation.
According to Abbreviationfinder, an acronym site which also features history of Monaco, the principality, completely surrounded by French territory, and being united to France by customs and telegraph services, ceased all political activity and became one of the most popular tourist and social centers of the Riviera. The opening of the Genoa-Nice railway in 1868 and the establishment of the gambling house in the Montecarlo district in 1869 solved all the tax problems of the principality, ensuring very high incomes.
Successive princes Charles III and his son Alberto, famous as a scientist, contributed greatly to the importance of the country by founding luxury industries, restructuring the Royal Palace and building the new Church of San Carlo. In 1922 Louis II became prince.
In November 1931 the prince established a Council of Notables to assist the government of the principality and maintain its uses and traditions. He had a daughter, Crown Princess Carlotta, married to Prince Pietro of Polignac. In January 1933 the princess asked to renounce the succession in favor of her son Raniero and, at the same time, asked for a divorce from her husband. Prince Louis II accepted the requests of his daughter but the National Assembly did not do so because, if the prince had died, and being still a minor Raniero, he would have had to elect a Council of Regency which, at the time, did not seem suitable to govern. But in February the divorce decree was equally pronounced and the succession issue was settled in November 1934 as Carlotta withdrew the renunciation.
The resident population in the principality has always been distributed over three main centers: Montecarlo, La Condamine and Monaco.
The thriving economic situation has always had its basis in solid industries, which represent a quarter of productivity; such as chemistry, pharmaceuticals, plastics, electricity and that of microelectronic components. Textiles, clothing and paper are also very accurate. More than 50% of the principality’s workers are Italian and French frontier workers.
The sector of banks and financial institutions is remarkable. The country’s banking system has made possible a large influx of foreign capital. But certainly the primary industry is represented by the ever growing tourism, which makes the principality one of the most popular countries in the world, especially by famous and wealthy people. The only negative thing is that since there is no agricultural land, all foodstuffs must be imported, and mostly from France.
Currently the ruler of the principality is Rainier III; his son Alberto is the crown prince. From the marriage contracted in the sixties with Grace Kelly, a beautiful and very rich American actress, who died tragically in a car accident, two other daughters were born: Caroline and Stephanie.
Politically stable, since 1963 the Principality made use of a National Council in which the majority was formed by the National and Democratic Union. In the same year the Democratic Union Movement was born in the opposition.
Ten years later another small party joined the latter: the Monegasque Action.
In the elections of January 1993 these parties were replaced by two lists: the Campora list and the Medecin list, named after their respective leaders.
The first got 15 seats, the second got two and the last available went to an independent. In the same year the Principality became a member of the United Nations.
In February 1998 all 18 seats were the preserve of the National and Democratic Union.