Literature, drama and theater
The oldest known Dutch writer, Hendrik van Veldeke, lived in the late 12th century in Limburg, which is now partly Belgian. He wrote lyrics and recorded the legend of Servatius, the patron saint of the city of Maastricht, in Middle Dutch. German literature also claims this poet, when he also wrote in the Middle German poet language the knight novel “Eneide” and thus conveyed the content and design language of the Hovish novel to the German cultural circle. From the 13th century until the Renaissance, Dutch literature flourished mainly in the southern parts of the language area, ie. Flanders and Brabant; see Belgium (Literature, drama and theater in the Dutch language).
- Countryaah: Population and demographics of Netherlands, including population pyramid, density map, projection, data, and distribution.
In the northern Netherlands part of the cultural area emerged during the Renaissance Erasmus of Rotterdam, which, however, put forward its humanistic ideals in Latin, as well as Dirck Volkertszoon Coornhert, advocate of religious tolerance and criminal justice reform. Filip Marnix van Sint-Aldegonde, a diplomat in Wilhelm of the ministry of the Oranis, wrote polemical writings against the Catholic Church and is also believed to have been the author of “Wilhelmus van Nassauwe” (c. 1572), since 1932 the national anthem of the Netherlands.
As a magnificent linguistic monument to the emerging unity of the Dutch language at the beginning of the 17th century stands the General Translation of the States, “De Statenbijbel” (1637). The translators were recruited from all the provinces of the Netherlands, including those who then came to belong to the Spanish Netherlands. The emblematic typical of the Renaissance was practiced by Roemer Visscher. During the golden age of the Dutch Republic in the 17th century, the classically formed officials Constantijn Huygens and Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft appeared. The latter’s historical drama “Baeto often Origin of the Dutchman” was written to enhance the national self-esteem of the young republic. The more popular merchant son and painter Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero followed the pattern of traditional poetry in his religious poetry as well as depictions of the happy life in Amsterdam and in the surrounding countryside. He is known for his comedies and dads. Joost van den Vondel’s political pamphlet poem supported Jan van Oldenbarnevelt’s case against Prince Moritz of Orange. In the national drama about Gijsbrecht, written for the inauguration of the new Amsterdamse Schouwburg theater in 1637, Troja’s fall and resurrection in Rome is interpreted as a figure for Amsterdam’s struggle, rise and prosperity. Extremely popular were Jacob Cats’ moral poems about the stages of human life and about marital cohabitation. In a captivating ship journal by Captain Willem Ysbrantszoon Bontekoe (published in 1646), the audience got to experience the endangered seamen’s life and exotic excitement from the colonies. In the 18th century, the Golden Age (De Gouden Eeuw) was over and the ideas of the Enlightenment came through. Justus van Effen entertained the bourgeoisie in moral journals and Hiëronymus van Alphen wrote the first poems for children. Betje Wolff-Bekker and Aagje Deken’s novel for young girls about Sara Burgerhart (‘Sara Borgarhjärta’) was written in Rousseau’s spirit.
In order to breathe new life into Dutch literature, EJ Potgieter in 1837 created the magazine De Gids (‘The Guide’), in which the golden age was highlighted as a shining example for contemporary times. The Dutch romance during the 19th century was dominated by historical novels by Aarnout Drost, Jan Frederik Oltmans, Jacob van Lennep and ALG Bosboom-Toussaint as well as by humorists such as Nicolaas Beets and Johannes Kneppelhout. The great literary event of the 19th century was Multatuli’s colonial novel “Max Havelaar” (1860), which led to a humanization of colonial politics. It was writers like Multatuli, naturalist Marcellus Emants and impressionist-idealistic lyricist Jacques Perk as the eighties, De Beweging van Tachtig, modeled. Willem Kloo’s introduction to Perk’s posthumously published sonnets (1882) became their literary manifesto. In 1885, the magazine De Nieuwe Gids (‘The New Guide’) was founded. The password for the movement was “l’art pour l’art”. Among the supporters were the psychiatrist and the socialist Frederik Willem van Eeden. In 1893 De Gids had played its part. Outside the group stood Louis Couperus, author of naturalistic turn-of-the-century novels and historical novels. Socialist ideas were expressed by lyricist Herman Gorter and naturalist playwright Herman Heijermans. A neo-romantic movement beginning around 1910 includes names such as PN van Eyck, Aart van der Leeuw, Adriaan Roland Holst and Arthur van Schendel.
Modernism made its entry into the magazine De Stijl, founded in 1917 by Theo van Doesburg. A prominent practitioner of the poetry of simple everyday words during this time was Martinus Nijhoff. At the same time, expressionism gained momentum with Herman van den Bergh and Hendrik Marsman. The new idealism’s style ideal contributed to another group pleading for functional simplicity, most notably in the magazine Forum (1932–35) where, in addition to the editors Menno ter Braak and Edgar du Perron, the prolific novelist Simon Vestdijk participated. About World War II Jewish persecution Jacob Presser, Marga Minco and Etty Hillesum. After the war, there was a need to settle on the values and ideals that could not stop the horrors of the war. The generation of angry young men includes Willem Frederik Hermans, Gerard Reve, Harry Mulisch and Jan Wolkers. Also in Roman form, Anna Blaman expressed the loneliness and disillusionment of the post-war period. The art group COBRA inspired a need to retake the interrupted form experiment in poetry. Among the fifties,the Fifties, can be mentioned Lucebert, Simon Vinkenoog and Gerrit Kouwenaar. The factuality continued with popular humorists Godfried Bomans, Simon Carmiggelt and Annie MG Schmidt, best known as children’s book writer.
During the 1960’s, experiments in poetry continued, influenced by pop art, television, comic culture and advertising. Among the new generation was Jan Bernlef, who later broke through as a prose writer. Within the theater, in the 1960’s and 1970’s, experimental groups abandoned the old theater and opera forms, and there were mixed forms of classical theater, folk games, pop art, revue, cabaret, film, opera and circus. In the 1970’s, women began to write new realistic and self-publishing literature. Mention can be made of Hannes Meinkema and Mensje van Keulen. Around the journal The auditors gathered a number of form-interested prose designers. More on emotions, nature experiences and childhood memories based on literature was written by Maarten ‘t Hart for a grateful audience. In the 1970’s, many authors considered the autobiographical interest, for example. at Adriaan van der Heijden. This focus continued into the 21st century with, among other things, Arnon Grunberg.
A new feature in the Dutch literary field is immigrant writers such as Iranian Kader Abdolah and Moroccan Hafid Bouazza. They invite Western readers to their culture, depict difficult conditions in the former homeland and foreigners in the new country – such as Abdolah – or even protest – like Bouazza – against the foreigners stamp.
Even in Surinam and in the Netherlands Antilles there is a Dutch literary tradition. Among the older people is the suriname Albert Helman. Highly talked about was the Antillean writer Frank Martinus Arion from Curaçao. Literature in Frisian is also published in the Netherlands.
Hella Haasse was the oldest of a quartet writer who dominated Dutch literature after the Second World War (the others were WF Hermans, Gerard Reve and Harry Mulish). This grand old lady, who turned 93, debuted at the age of thirty with a book based on growing up in Dutch India. Many of her novels are published there, but she also wrote masterful historical stories.
A background in current Indonesia also has Adriaan van Dis (born 1946), who located a trilogy there, while Paris, where he now lives, forms the background for later works. Astrid Roemer (born 1947) from Suriname writes about exotic topics and new voices are heard from a number of immigrant writers, many of them with roots in Morocco. Catholic cosmopolitan Cees Noteboom has written cultural-historical travelogues (one of them about Spanish pilgrimages), as well as journalist and historian Geert Mak (born 1946), whose bricks on travel in Europe are magnificent. The productive Jan Siebelink (born 1938), with its interest in religious themes, has gone in the opposite direction to the secularization that has dominated the country since the radical 1960’s. The singer, pianist, filmmaker, and art historian Margriet de Moor (born 1941), raised in a large Catholic sibling, is interested in her novels for the Sisters of Cohesion. Oek de Jong (born 1952) whose psychological novels have reached many readers also internationally is also a prominent essayist, not least about art. The two-year-old Renate Dorrestein (born 1954) is even more read and appreciated for her novels and feminist journalism. The multiple award-winning Marcel Möring (born 1957)) is central to the literary landscape with his novels on memory and identity. Marjolijn Drenth (born 1963), whose author pseudonym is Marjolijn February, combines her pragmatic writing with her public role as outgoing intellectual. The same-year-old Joost Zwagerman (1963–2015), who was interested in popular culture and the game between fiction and reality, had a distinct finger-feel for what is going on in a multicultural postmodern society.
Several tendencies are evident in Dutch literature a decade into the 2000’s: a movement away from the relativism, nihilism and irony of 1960’s and later postmodernism, a return to more conventional and traditional forms, a reaffirmation of realism (the amount of reporting and other fact books are large), an increased scope for moral and ethical issues as well as a broader concept of literature in the interaction with new media.
The first Dutch film was made in 1895, the same year that the Lumière brothers showed their Cinématograph. Early film pioneers include Willy Mullens (1880–1952), Theo Frenkel (1871–1956), Caroline van Dommelen (1874–1957), and Maurits Binger (1868–1923). Internationally renowned became the Dutch film in the 1920’s through documentary filmmaker Joris Ivens. During the 1930’s, feature films were severely limited, but by famous names who worked in the Netherlands, Douglas Sirk belongs. However, the documentary film tradition was maintained and strengthened after the war with names such as Bert Haanstra, and George Sluizer (1932–2014).
The biggest post-war success was “The Village at the River” (1958), a feature film by Fons Rademakers, who later had new successes with “Max Havelaar” (1976) and “De Aanslag” (1986), which was awarded with an Oscar. During the 1960’s, a film wave of personal, experimental kind arose, e.g. “Joszef Katus” (1967) by Pim de la Parra (born 1940) and Wim Verstappen (1937–2004).
The sexually outspoken “Turkish confection” (1973), after Jan Wolker’s best-selling novel, became the beginning of a series of cash successes by Paul Verhoeven, who continued with, among other things. “On Bloody Ground” (1977) and “Spetters” (1980). After two decades of career in Hollywood, he returned in 2006 to make the controversial war drama “Black Book”.
With the introduction of the VCR in the late 1970’s, the audience figures at the cinemas dropped. Some of the audience successes that went against the trend were Verstappen’s “Pastorale 1943” (1978), Jos Stellings (born 1945) “The Magician” (1983), Dick Maas (born 1951) “The Lift” (1983) and “Amsterdamned” (1988) and Marleen Gorris (born 1948) “Cracked Mirrors” (1984).
During the 1990’s, the Dutch film was acclaimed for a number of prestigious international awards, such as Alex van Warmerdams (born 1952) “Happy Street” (1992) and the two Oscar-winning “Antonia’s World” (1995) by Gorris and “The Character” (1997) by Mike van Diem (born 1959).
In 2004, the controversial filmmaker and writer Theo van Gogh (1957–2004) was murdered by an Islamist fanatic, which aroused strong reactions worldwide.
Among Dutch filmmakers who have had success with international productions include cinematographer Jan de Bont (born 1943), who directed action films such as “Speed” (1994, sequel 1997) and “Twister” (1996), and still-photographer Anton Corbijn, who directed, among others. a. the music biography “Control” (2007) and the thriller “The American” (2010).
Actors who succeeded in Hollywood include Rutger Hauer, Jeroen Krabbé (born 1944) and Famke Janssen (born 1965).
The Netherlands annual production is about 15 feature films. The major film festivals include the International Film Festival Rotterdam (IFFR, founded in 1972) and the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam (IDFA, founded in 1988).
Dutch art includes the art that was created in the seven provinces corresponding to the present Netherlands. The prerequisite for the flourishing of national art life during the 17th century, in particular, was the liberation of the Spaniards in the war fought from 1572, in combination with economic activity and a Calvinistic work ethic. Contrary to the situation in the Catholic southern Netherlands, the art here was rooted in the patrician and middle class, with a slight exception to the need for the governor in The Hague. The bourgeoisie became essentially the bearer of a reality-oriented art that in great wealth depicted landscapes, people and environments with driven technical skills and in some cases, mainly Rembrandt’s, with a unique psychological and existential depth.
Prior to the heyday, the Netherlands formed a coherent area of art, to which southern parts also artists from the north sought (Dirk Bouts, Gerard David, Geertgen tot Sint Jans). An original effort made Hieronymus Bosch with his imaginative, penetrated works by folkloric allusions that also assign a significant role to the landscape. Impulses from the Italian Renaissance art met the Sotho tradition, at Lucas van Leyden with ever stronger features of realism. Maarten van Heemskerck’s large altar painting in Linköping’s cathedral still belongs to the romantic direction, while the realistic portrait art was represented by Jan van Scorel and the most famous Anthonis Mor. The art’s progressive secularization brought new types of images such as landscape, still life and genre, which were developed on a full scale during the 17th century. The sculpture played with a few exceptions – the works of Artus Quellinus for the Amsterdam City Hall and Hendrik de Keyser’s tomb monument to Wilhelm of Oranien in Delft – a minor role. Within the painting, impulses from Italy can soon be traced in the new century, as in the Late Manerist art in Haarlem (Hendrick Goltzius) and Utrecht, where Caravaggio’s realism with a preference for light effects is often combined with images of musicianship (Gerrit van Honthorst, Hendrick Terbrugghen). From the 16th century onwards, group injustice was taken over and further developed as a specific image genre, where corporations such as the shooter, boards of charitable institutions and the like are depicted in an image structure that emphasizes the group’s affiliation. In Haarlem, Frans Hals brought this genre to a climax. Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam from Leiden in 1632 and began the series of paintings that would give him a central position in world art. The genre picture reached a rich development with Pieter de Hooch and in particular Jan Vermeer. In Leiden, Gerard Dou, a specialist in miniature detailed genre images, appeared, while Gerard Terborch in Deventer in the same genre developed a personal style. Society painting of a more global kind was represented by Willem Buytewech and Jan Miense Molenaer, while Jan Steen, under the influence of the contemporary theater, painted his pictures with noisy parades and festive physiognomies. The life depictions of the bourgeoisie were complemented by the peasant genre, where Adriaen van Ostade, with a look for humorous details, depicted episodes of life in the peasant villages.
After preparations in the 16th century, landscape painting developed during the Great Age into a central image category. In dramatic but also saturated moods, the national landscape was mapped under varying atmospheric conditions, with the reality impressions constantly at close range. Gillis van Coninxloo, with Hercules Seghers as a prominent successor, was of importance to Rembrandt, too, to the Flemish’s emotionally saturated landscape. A culmination reached the dramatic line of Jacob van Ruisdael’s dark forest landscape and brightly varied views of the polder, a motivational focus that was followed by Meindert Hobbema, albeit in a more idyllic look. The perspective is widened in Philips Koninkk’s wide plain images,
Important efforts in depicting the undramatic landscape were made in Haarlem by Esaias van de Velde, Jan van Goyen and Salomon van Ruysdael, who sharpened the atmospheric study and began their exploration of the effects of light on beaches and water. Others specialized in winter landscapes with citizen families on ice skating (Hendrik Avercamp) while Art van der Neer made himself known for his moonlight landscape. Italianizing impulses appear in the later 1600’s in Aelbert Cuyp’s light-soaked landscape. In the marine painting, Hendrick Vroom and Jan Porcellis excelled with a sometimes monochrome tone painting that illustrated life at sea, it must have been about sea beats or the fishermen’s peaceful nutrition. Tranquility and tranquility are brought to perfection in Jan van de Cappelle’s maritime pieces, often with views from the shoreline with a low horizon and reflecting water surfaces. The tambourines out in the fields were depicted by Paul Potter, mainly known by the monumental bull in the Mauritshuis in The Hague, other bird images (Melchior d’Hondecoeter) and hunting pieces (Jan Weenix). The Calvinist church room, with its whitewashed walls and vaults, inspired painters like Pieter Saenredam and Emanuel de Witte for perspectively advanced room-making in changing days. An important genre was also the still life painting, which, with more or less prominent moralizing elements, showed both flashy flower pieces with glittering practical vessels (Jan Davidsz de Heem, Willem Kalf), fish pieces (Abraham van Beyeren) and meal pieces as well as vanity pictures (David Bailly, Pieter Claesz)..
After 1670, innovation was over and an influence from France became more and more evident. Caspar Netscher illustrates the new situation as does Gerard de Lairesse, who also published a theoretical work, “Het groet schilderboek” (1707). During the 19th century, the consciousness of the older tradition lives, but increasingly subject to newer currents. Jozef Israel’s public life pictures and in particular Johan Barthold Jongkind’s shimmering, almost impressionistic landscape can be mentioned, in addition to the brothers Maris in The Hague, who worked in close connection with the national tradition. Above the crowd rises Vincent van Gogh, who during the decade 1880-90 created his deeply personal art.
The visual arts during the 20th century are mainly characterized by the De Stijl group’s ascetic plan geometry, with names such as Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg. Of totally different connotation is the vital expressionism that developed within the COBRA group and whose main representative in the Netherlands came to be Karel Appel. Compare Flemish art.
The bourgeois pleasures that are usually associated with Dutch interior art were already developed during Gothic. When the classic ideal of the Renaissance reached the country, the forms according to indigenous tradition were transformed into an independent style, primarily by architects Cornelis Floris and Hans Vredeman de Vries, whose ideas spread through pattern leaves and gained a dominant influence on the entire Northern European – not least Swedish – home environment. The furniture, which had a simple architectural structure, was preferably made of oak with the large closet as character furniture. During the Baroque, the cabinets became heavier and wider, gladly received spiral-turned columns as well as skirtings in fillings and frameworks. Wicker braiding in chair seats and chair backs came into fashion as did inlaid tropical veneer inlays, both a result of imports from the new colonies. The paving art was further developed, and during the second half of the 17th century were furniture facades, drawer fronts, etc. translated by naturalistically drawn flowers and birds, so-called floral marketerie. This was also common in the United Kingdom, whose furniture art at that time was heavily influenced by the Dutch, which also applied to the rest of Northern Europe.
Also in the field of ceramics, the Netherlands has held a significant position, mainly through its early import of East Asian porcelain and its extensive faience production (see Delft Fajans). At the same time, a flourishing weaving industry grew in Delft; inter alia Queen Christina’s coronation wallpaper is woven here. In the art of glass, the country is known for a high-quality manufacture during the 17th and 18th century of glassware with diamond engraved decorations.
The Netherlands’ main contribution to the design development of the 20th century is the De Stijl group, whose design language Gerrit Rietveld applied in his furniture, made of wooden boards and ribs. Mart Stam is considered to have constructed modernism’s most widely scattered steel pipe chair. One of the pioneers of the machine-made product was HP Berlage, who in the 1920’s and 1930’s designed glass for Leerdam’s glassworks. In the 1940’s Leerdam joined Cybren Valkema, who in 1969 started the first European studio glass cabin at the Rietveld Academy. During the post-war period, Dutch graphic design has gained international attention. In the mid-1960’s Eva van Leersum and Gijs Bakker renewed the jewelry art with bold “objects to wear” in light, inexpensive materials, for example. aluminum.
The Netherlands has, with its location, been exposed to influence from many directions, but has also developed its own architectural character, which has made significant contributions to international development. The almost entirely man-made landscape with independent small towns has meant an obvious need for planning, but without the monumental features of the strong central powers.
The water as a transport route was the starting point for urban construction. The typical Dutch houses are deep and narrow and turn their often richly decorated gables to the canals. The basement is high and the main room of the dwelling is in the ground floor, behind large windows. Of public buildings, it is generally only the churches and town halls that are free in the otherwise compact buildings. Brick is the local material that characterized the architecture. In the mostly unassuming medieval architecture, especially, the lavish Gothic Gothic, for example, appears. in Sint Janskerk (c. 1380–1525) in ‘s-Hertogenbosch.
The first golden age of Dutch architecture dates back to the 17th century. The Renaissance, and especially Palladianism, was then interpreted in a special Dutch brick architecture, which spread to other countries, not least through copper engraving. Prominent architects during this time were Hendrick de Keyser, who designed Zuiderkerk and Westerkerk in Amsterdam (1603–11 and 1620–31, respectively), and Jacob van Campen, the author of the Mauritshuis in The Hague (1633–35) and the City Hall (now the royal palace) in Amsterdam (1645–55). Philips Vingboons designed numerous private palaces and his brother Justus, among others. the facade of the Riddarhuset in Stockholm.
A second golden age occurred in the early 1900’s. An important predecessor was Petrus JH Cuypers, while the great innovator was HP Berlage with the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (1897-1903). Social housing construction was developed early, with good examples in the expressionist brick building of the Amsterdam School, especially through Michel de Klerk.
Modernism gained one of its international centers in the Netherlands where two different directions existed. The group around the magazine De Stijlemphasized the spiritual qualities of simple geometric shapes. The Schroeder House in Utrecht (1924) by Gerrit Rietveld is the built manifesto of this so-called neoplasticism. The group around the magazine De 8 en Opbouw claimed a more engineering rational construction, “Nieuwe Bouwen”, with the sanatorium Zonnestraal (1928) by Jan Duiker as a breakthrough. JJP Oud designed several exemplary residential areas in the early 1920’s. The Van Nelle factory in Rotterdam (1926-30) by the architectural firm Brinkman & Van der Vlugt is a highly dynamic and almost constructivist industrial building. Cornelis van Eesteren was a leader in CIAM and worked as a city planner with, among other things. the noted general plan for Amsterdam 1934.
Aldo van Eyck and Herman Hertzberger became leading architects in Dutch structuralism, which had its influential body in the magazine Forum (1959–64). A completely different architecture characterizes NMB Bank’s head office in Amsterdam (1986). The large plant with roots in expressionism and anthroposophical architecture places great importance on energy conservation and was designed by Anton Alberts. In a younger generation, Rem Koolhaas emerges as the foremost representative of a new and large-scale modernism with, among other things, The Dance Theater in The Hague (1980–87). Jo Coenen stands for more sculptural modernism. in the Architecture Museum in Rotterdam (1994).
Developed in close contact with the outside world, the art of gardening in the Netherlands has been particularly prominent in the 16th, 16th and 20th centuries. The medieval gardens of the Netherlands were developed under the influence of Burgundy. They were typical with small enclosed gardens but could also accommodate ponds, vineyards and tennis courts.
Interest in plant cultivation, especially tulips, became an early feature of the country’s garden art. The founding of the botanical garden at Leiden University in 1587 was therefore an important event.
At the beginning of the 17th century, an independent garden style was developed in the Netherlands with features of both the Renaissance and the Baroque. It differed from foreign counterparts through its wealth of flowers, emphasis on detail and enclosed plan form, framed by tree rows and canals. The intimate scale reveals the influence of the bourgeoisie’s gardens. An important plant from this time is Het Loo.
The Dutch garden style of the 18th century was more intimate and less strict, influenced by rococo and English landscape style, later also with Chinese. In the 1860’s, a joint park planning of Parisian cuts was undertaken in Amsterdam by JG van Niftrik. At the turn of the 1900’s, models were sought in the British cottage style and in the gardens of Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll. Tongivande later became among others. Mien Ruys and Piet Oudolf with innovative pear plants.
In the 1930’s, the Netherlands became a leader in international garden art through its park planning on ecological grounds, among other things. with the large Bos Park in Amsterdam, started in 1934 under the direction of Cornelis van Eesteren. Jacques Thijsse already created in the 1920’s so-called Heem-parks to show original nature in this completely cultural landscape. The emphasis on the ecological, social and educational values of the parks has survived and given rise to, among other things, city farms. The economically important gardening industry has manifested itself in extensive exhibitions, including in Zoetermeer 1992 with a well-known geometric plan by Michiel den Ruijter.
The earliest sources of music from the area the Netherlands today encompasses are some fragments of hymns from the early Middle Ages. Medieval music is also a memory song; a representative of this was in the middle of the 12th century Hendrik van Veldeke. For the art of the later Middle Ages, see Dutch schools. From the 17th century music life can be noted a boost for the organ art (JP Sweelinck). Otherwise, the Netherlands followed prevailing international trends during the 1800’s-1800’s, but with the new state formation in 1830, a breeding ground for a national music life emerged. In 1888, the Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam began its activities in the concert hall. Willem Mengelberg is one of the orchestra’s best known conductorsand Bernard Haitink. Also in other major Dutch cities there are good quality symphony orchestras, eg. Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra and Residentie Orchestra in The Hague.
German and French styles were united around the turn of the 1900 in a personal way by composers such as Bernard Zweers (1854–1924), Johan Wagenaar (1862–1941) and Alphons Diepenbrock (1862–1921). French influence also showed Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981), as well as initially the most influential indigenous composer of the 20th century, Willem Pijper. Its influence has been continued by students such as Willem Landré (1874–1948), Kees van Baren (1906–70) and Henk Badings.
A later generation of composers includes Ton de Leeuw (1926–96), Enrique Raxach (born 1932), Peter Schat (1935–2003), and Hendrik Andriessen’s sons Jurriaan (1925–96) and Louis (born 1939).
The Dutch opera culture has its most modern seat in Amsterdam’s Het Muziektheater, opened in 1986.
The Netherlands is an important center for contemporary cultivation of Baroque music with names such as Frans Brüggen (recorder), Gustav Leonhardt and Ton Koopman (both harpsichord). Among the country’s choirs is the Nederlands Kamerkoor. In the Gaudeamus foundation, the Netherlands has a resource-rich body for contemporary music.
The Netherlands has become a pioneering country in the field of electro-acoustic music with well-developed studio activities. in Eindhoven. In the international music industry, the Philip Group operates. To the vivacity of the modern Dutch music life contributes a richly branched music education. Special features include the organ improvisation competition in Haarlem and the school for chimes in Amersfoort.
The annual Holland Festival (founded in 1947) is one of Europe’s largest and more diverse music festivals.
Dutch cabaret music became important for later forms of popular music. A pioneer was singer and cabaret artist Jean-Louis Pisuisse (1880-1927). He is considered the creator of Kleine art, a mixture of French cabaret, German schlager and politically oriented entertainment. Pisuisse also coined the term levenslied, a kind of Dutch equivalent of French chanson, which with its sentimental songs about love and life became a lively genre in popular music sung in Dutch. Prominent artists in life songs have been Willy Alberti (1926–85), Koos Albert (born 1947) and André Hazes (1951–2004).
After Indonesia became independent in 1945, several musicians active in Indonesia moved to the Netherlands and brought their music with them. One result was the instrumental style Indorock, which with its mix of Indonesian and Western music became popular from the mid-1950’s. The Tielman Brothers were among the first to play Indoor Rock and, as Dutch rock pioneers, also achieved international success. Early ones also reached Blue Diamonds with the song “Ramona” (1960).
Nederbeat (Nederbiet), with its center in The Hague, was a Dutch response to British groups such as The Beatles. Leading in the direction were groups such as Golden Earring, Q65 and The Outsiders. Named groups and artists during the 1960’s-80’s were Shocking Blue with the international hit song “Venus” (1970), George Baker (born 1944) with “Una Paloma Blanca” (1975), Earth and Fire, Brainbox, Herman Brood (1946) –2011), Gruppo Sportivo, Nits and the girl bands Luv ‘and Dolly Dots.
Duon Mouth & MacNeal also became popular in Sweden with the song “I See A Star” which came third in the Eurovision Schlagerfestival 1974 when ABBA won. Even the symphony rock group Ekseption reached Sweden with their rock versions of classic pieces. The Focus group got an international hit with the song “Hocus Pocus” (1971); of its members, guitarist Jan Akkerman (born 1946) has had a successful solo career since the 1970’s. The Dutch guitar virtuoso Edward Van Halen (born 1957) formed together with brother and drummer Alex Van Halen (born 1953)) in the early 1970’s the successful hard rock group Van Halen in the United States. The Urban Dance Squad group became influential from the 1980’s with its mix of hip-hop, funk and rock, and during the 1990’s, Eurodance groups such as 2 Unlimited and Vengaboy achieved great international success.
Prominent groups and artists during the 2000’s include the singer Anouk (really Anouk Stotijn-Teeuwe, born 1975), the rock groups Kane and Di-rect and the indie rock Voicst.
Pia Douwes is considered one of Europe’s foremost musical artists with leading roles in musical sets worldwide.
The Netherlands has long had a lively jazz scene. The most significant jazz musicians in the Netherlands include pianist Misha Mengelberg (born 1935), drummer Han Bennink (born 1942) and band leader and saxophonist Willem Breuker (1944–2010). Since 1976, the extensive North Sea Jazz festival is held annually with both international and Dutch artists.
The Netherlands maintains a treasure trove of folk dances, both group and couple dances. In eastern and southern provinces, folklore and dance traditions are linked to harvest, animal motifs and everyday life. In some areas, wooden cod dances have emerged.
The art of dance in the Netherlands has traditions from the 17th century, when ballet began to be performed, first in Amsterdam, then in The Hague. In 1945, the Scapino Ballet in Amsterdam was founded by choreographer Hans Snoek, focusing mainly on children’s audiences. In 1959, the Nederlands Dans Theater in The Hague was led by the American Benjamin Harkarvy with Dutch choreographer Hans van Manen as artistic director from 1960. Since the beginning, the repertoire has consisted of contemporary works created for the ensemble. The American Glen Tetley became artistic leader in 1969 with Van Manen and gave the ensemble works of lasting value. In 1975, the Czech Jiří Kylián took over as manager, after which a real sheer time has followed. The Netherlands’ third major ballet is Het Nationale Ballet, founded in Amsterdam in 1961 and until 1969 led by Sonia Gaskell.
The proximity to the sea has characterized Dutch folk culture. The transocean trade brought general prosperity and a high degree of urbanization, which quickly and generally accepted the fashion news of the high-end culture of clothing and furniture by the rural population. This further took on such bourgeois habits as decorating their homes with oil-painted paintings. But the sea was also a constant threat to the flat landscape and its polders, for whose drainage channels and thousands of windmills were built; these were thus to a large extent not mills but pumping plants. Fishing has always played an important role, but the fisherman and seaman’s culture has shown considerable traditionalism, though hardly economically conditioned, which has long been preserved, for example. age-old costume details such as the wide trousers and women’s headgear.
Local differences can be noted in the case of traditional older settlements. In the province of Drenthe the farms are located in large villages, as in western Germany. In marshland in the north, in order to gain greater safety in the case of floods, artificial hills, terps or meadows have been created, where in the past the densely assembled farms were gathered, while in marshland in the province of Zeeland similar things were done but with only one yard on each hill, vluchtberg.
The prosperity of the farmers is reflected in the large, well-built farms. In the east, counterparts to the low German hall houses with gable doors and cohabitants meet under the same roof between cattle and people, albeit with separate living rooms at the back of the kitchen section. In the West Frisian Islands, Europe has perhaps created the most striking public buildings, huge square structures under a high pyramid-shaped roof with a large space for the livestock’s food in the center. The houses are so heavily timed that the body can withstand even a storm surge. In a completely different way, the southern Dutch farmhouses of the same type as the Belgian and Northern French appear.
Dutch folk culture is exhibited in Arnhem’s large open-air museum and can also be experienced at, for example. the famous cheese markets in Alkmaar and during the carnival parties in the Catholic areas in the south, as in Maastricht and ‘s-Hertogenbosch.