Rembrandt is the largest representative of the fine arts in the Netherlands. During the Gothic and Renaissance periods the Netherlands began to experience remarkable artistic development, especially in painting. On the intellectual level, Erasmus of Rotterdam, born in the Netherlands, had a great influence on the cultural life of his country and Europe during the 16th century.
Subsequently, and in his honor, the Erasmus Prize has been awarded since 1958 in the field of humanities, social sciences and the arts. In the 17th century, during the period known as the ‘Dutch Golden Age’, the country’s cultural influence reached its peak. Among the most notable Dutch figures of that time were Christiaan Huygens and Baruch Spinoza. In addition, there were foreigners who lived in the country thanks to its environment of tolerance, such as the French René Descartes or the English John Locke. The country is popularly known for its windmills, wooden shoes, tulips, bicycles, and social tolerance.
Dutch-language literature began in the High Middle Ages, when the various national languages crystallized throughout Europe. Also the first writings in Dutch belonged to the religious and mystical sphere (monks Hadewijch, Thomas Kempis). In the S. XIII the mystical poet Jacob Van Maerlant gave a great boost to his language, although he had to answer to the Pope himself in person for a version of the Bible in verse. His disciples Boendale and Weert wrote didactic poems and satirical-moral works respectively.
In the fourteenth century chivalric poetry spread, sponsored by nobles who wished to trace their genealogies. The Reformation represented a change in the orientation of Dutch literature, eliminating all remnants of the medieval period. But it was the s. XVII the most brilliant period of literature in the Flemish language: the Catholic playwright and poet Joast Vander Vonden is considered the most remarkable in the history of the Netherlands, a country located in Europe according to COMPUTERANNALS; He was also the founder of the first public theater in his country. Other great figures of the time were: Hooft, epicurean idealist and aristocratic poet; Bredero, humanist and sensual; and the moralistic and lyrical poet Huygens. In the S. In the eighteenth century, a period of ostensible decline began, with few exceptions for some notable bourgeois novels, such as Sarah Burgerhart (Aagje Deken). The reaction occurred in the s. XIX with the poet Bilderdijk. In the prose of the s. In the 19th century, the realistic humor of Beets, the romanticism of Potgieter and, in particular, the scathing satire of “Multatuli”, founder of the Tachtigers Movement, shone. Louis Couperus was the best novelist of the s. XIX. The Movement for the Liberation of the Word brought Naturalism to the theater. The turn of the century saw the diffusion work of the Nieuwe Gids magazine.
In the early years of the twentieth century poetic creation dominated, first with vitalism, and then seeking greater simplicity. In the 1930s the best Dutch writers were linked to Forum magazine. From 1945 the narrative of the Netherlands became pessimistic influenced by existentialism and the American novel, and poetry branched out into two trends: experimentation or search for reality, and everyday language.
Although around the turn of the current century the Netherlands were among the forerunners of cinema, this evolution was not continued later. After the Second World War, and thanks to the creation of the Dutch Film Production Fund Foundation and the Dutch Film Academy, a greater interest in feature films by the Dutch, and Dutch-language co-productions with Belgium, the situation of the film industry improved. Even the Dutch Cinema Association gave its financial support for the indigenous production of films. However, in the Netherlands, screenings used to be mostly of foreign films. Trying to avoid this, there was a new relaunch of his own cinematography, first with Dorp aan de rivier (Fons Rademakers), which was a finalist for an Oscar in 1979 and which led to the making of quality Dutch films (Max Havelaar, Van de koele meren des doods, Soldaat van Oranje, etc). In 1987 the Oscar for best foreign film was won, thanks to the Foms Rademakees film, De Aaslag.
Dutch gastronomy has a wide variety of exquisite dishes, it should be noted that the main ingredients most used are bread and potatoes, usually accompanied by meat, vegetables or fish.
In the case of fish, in Holland smoked eel (Gerookte Paling) dishes are very typical. Haring is also widely consumed as a snack, which is a herring that is eaten completely raw and served alone or accompanied by raw onion.
As for seafood, fried mussels with butter and Garnalen or Nordseegarnelen are very popular, which is a kind of peeled prawn that is served cooked and accompanied by different sauces.
Dutch cuisine is also very popular for its famous cheeses, since many of them are highly recognized in the world, such as Gouda, Leyden or Edam cheese.
Rijsttafel: The Rijsttaf a meal of Indonesian origin that consists of a large number of small dishes of meat and vegetables, with different degrees of spiciness and is always accompanied with rice. Erwtensoep: Erwtensoep is also very popular in Dutch dinners, this dish consists of a kind of pea soup. Pannekoeken: The Pannekoeken is also very typical of Dutch gastronomy, it is a kind of Crepe on which both salty and sweet ingredients are put (bacon, applesauce, raisins etc).
- Breakfasts are eaten very early, between 8:00 and 9:00, they are usually strong and very varied, since both sweet and savory foods are eaten. The most typical is hot chocolate, chocomel, with slagroom (a kind of whipped cream).
- Lunch is eaten between 11:00 and 13:00, it is usually much weaker, since fast food dishes such as sandwiches etc. are usually eaten. The most typical dish for lunch is uitsmijter and Pannekoeken.
- Dinner is taken habitually from 18:00 to 20:00. Dinner is considered the most important dish of the day. Here a variety of somewhat more elaborate dishes are usually served, such as Rijsttafel or Erwtensoep.