Oman (Arab. عُمَان ʿUmān), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arab. سلْطنةُ عُمان Salṭanat (u) ʻUmān ) is a country in the southwestern part of Asia, in the Middle East. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, Yemen to the southwest, as well as the Arabian Sea to the south and east and the Persian Gulf to the northeast.
There were ports on the coasts of Oman as early as the 4th millennium. They were the trade intermediaries of the oldest civilizations that existed in the basins of the Tigris, Nile, Euphrates and Indus.
In the middle 7th century, the land passed to the Arab Caliphate. Islam prevailed.
After the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads who ruled the Caliphate, Oman became an independent state ruled by imams – the imamate. In the Middle Ages, Oman’s ports retained their importance.
Until 1515, almost the entire coast of Oman was captured by the Portuguese.
In 1650, Imam Abu Jarib ‘s army liberated the country, occupied the Strait of Hormuz and some islands of the Persian Gulf, part of the southeast coast of Persia.
In 17th century In the 1950s, the Imams of Oman subjugated Zanzibar and part of the East African coast.
in 1792 the Sultanate of Muscat was established on the shores of the Gulf of Oman, separated from the Imamate of Oman. 18th century at the end of the Persian Gulf and the coast of the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by the Wahhabis. The British began to call this territory the Pirate Coast.
19th century in the second half, Muscat and the Pirate Coast (later called the Treaty of Oman, and since 1971 the independent state of the United Arab Emirates) became British protectorates.
By the Treaty of Sib, the British authorities and the Sultan of Muscat recognized the independence of the Imamate of Oman.
After World War II, large oil fields were discovered in Oman.
in 1955 The troops of Britain and the Sultan of Muscat Said ben Teimūr invaded the Imamate of Oman and by 1959 occupied most of it.
in 1970 Taimur’s son Qaboos ben Said united the Sultanate of Muscat and the Imamate of Oman and announced the creation of the Sultanate of Oman. Relations with other countries began to expand, and a national government was created.
Oman is a member of the UN since 1971.
As a country beginning with O according to Countryaah, Oman is an absolute monarchy.
The head of state and government is Sultan Qabūs bin Saīd as-Saīd, who appoints a cabinet of ministers known as the Divan.
Today’s ( 2007 ) Cabinet of Ministers includes three female ministers: in the fields of education, social affairs and tourism.
Oman is divided into 4 governorates ( muhafazah ) and 5 regions ( mintagats ). Regions are divided into provinces ( vilayas ). The governorates and regions of Oman are:
- Al Buraimi
- Ad Dachilia
- Al Batina
- Al Wusta
- I’m Sharkia
- Ad Dahira
The area of Oman is 309,500 km².
The Hajar ( Oman ) mountains run along the Gulf of Oman (the highest point is Mount Sham, which is 3353 m high).
Between the mountains and the Gulf of Oman is the narrow lowland of al Batina with oases. The Dhofar Plateau lies in the southwest of Oman.
The vegetation of semi-deserts and deserts grows in the country (the eastern edge of the Rub al Khalij desert intervenes in the central part of Oman), in the mountains – savannas, deciduous forests, meadows; Dates and coconut palms grow in oases.
Oman has a continental tropical climate.
Oman exports oil, dates, fish, citrus.
There are food, cement, pipe, plastic manufacturing companies in Oman.
The most important agricultural plant is dates (yield ~50,000 tons per year). In addition, tobacco, alfalfa, lemon trees, mango trees, pomegranate trees, bananas, cereals are grown. Bedouin nomads raise camels, sheep, goats.
Pearls are collected and fished on the coasts of Oman.
The most important seaports are Muscat and Al Matrach. Sib International Airport is located near Muscat.
he majority of Oman’s population is Arab. As in other Arab countries, citizens of India, Pakistan and Iran live here, most of whom work in unskilled jobs. The official language of the country is Arabic.
About 75% of the population are Ibadi Muslims. It is the most prevalent form of Islam in Oman, separate from Sunnism and Shiism. The rest of the population is mostly Sunni and Shia. Hindus, Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Sikhs, Baha’is, Christians and other religions make up less than 5% of the country’s population. Many non-Muslims are stateless immigrants from South Asia.
According to 2003 census, 15 and the literacy rate of the elderly in the country is 81.4% (men – 86.8%, women – 73.5%). According to 2009 estimates, average life expectancy from birth in Oman is 74.16 years (71.87 years for men, 76.55 years for women). Population age structure:
- 0-14 years: 42.7%
- 15-64 years: 54.5%
- 65 and over: 2.8% (2009 census)
Oman has a well-developed jewelry industry. Omani jewelers love to make silver jewelry, which is highly valued there.
Many Persian and Indian elements are reflected in the traditional architecture of Oman. Among modern Omani youth, dance and new literature are popular.
State Day is celebrated on November 18. Sultan Qaboos bin Said celebrates his birthday on that day.
The Ruwi National Museum exhibits many works by Omani painters, sculptors and other artists. Other notable museums include the Oman History Museum and the Sultan’s Armed Forces Museum.