State structure and political system of Malta
Malta is a democratic constitutional state with a republican form of government. The current constitution was adopted in 1964 and amended in 1974 and 1987. Check computerminus for political system of Malta.
Until 1974, Malta had the status of a limited monarchy within the British Commonwealth of Nations. In December 1974 Malta became a republic with a president.
Elections are held on the basis of proportional representation. The two main political parties, the conservative Nationalist Party (NP) and the social democratic Maltese Labor Party (MLP), are the main contenders in the elections. In 1987, a clause prohibiting the country from joining military alliances was introduced into the Constitution.
The supreme body of legislative power is the unicameral parliament (65 seats), elected every 5 years. Results of the 1998 elections (percentage of votes received by the parties): NP – 51.8, MLP – 46.9. The seats in the parliament are distributed as follows: NP – 35 and MLP – 30 seats.
The head of state is President Guido de Marco (since April 4, 1999). The head of the highest executive authority is Prime Minister Eddie Fenech Adami (since September 6, 1998). After the parliamentary elections are held, the president appoints the leader of the winning party or the leader of the coalition as prime minister for a term of 5 years. The Cabinet is appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. The President is elected by Parliament for a term of 5 years.
In foreign policy, Malta, as a country of the Mediterranean, has always sought to establish dialogue and cooperation between the countries of this region. In 1981, the government of Malta declared the country’s status as a neutral state pursuing a policy of non-alignment. From the beginning 1990s Malta’s foreign policy was aimed primarily at achieving full EU membership. The positive decision of the European Council of the EU on April 16, 2003 in Athens on the admission of Malta to the EU at the same time with 9 other European countries defined Malta as an integral part of Europe. At the regional level, Malta has always actively participated in the work of the Council of Europe and the OSCE.
The armed forces of Malta consist of the ground forces with one squadron of combat aircraft and one squadron of patrol ships attached to them, as well as parts of the Maltese police.
The number of men fit for military service aged 15-49 years is 78,909 people. (2002). Military spending – $60 million, 1.7% of GDP (2000).
Malta has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1967).
Economy of Malta
GDP – 7 billion dollars, real GDP growth – 2.2%, GDP per capita – 17 thousand dollars (2002). Inflation – 2.4% (2002). Employment – 160 thousand people, incl. in industry – 24%, in the service sector – 71%, in agriculture – 5% (2002). Unemployment – 7% (2002).
Sectoral structure of the economy in terms of contribution to GDP: agriculture – 3%, industry – 26%, services – 71%.
Electricity production – 1.75 billion kW / h (2000). Electricity consumption — 1.62 billion kW/h.
The shipbuilding and ship repair industry is mainly the state sector of the economy, which employs approx. 48 thousand people, i.e. almost 1/3 of the total number of employed in the country. Fulfills orders for the repair and maintenance of foreign ships.
The electronic industry is a new industry, the largest enterprise with more than 2.4 thousand employees. owned by an Italian company that produces integrated circuits for computers. The company has invested 1.6 billion euros in the economy of M.
The tourism industry is one of the main sectors of the economy. More than 1.2 million tourists visit Malta every year. Hotels, restaurants and cafes employ 7% of all employed in the country’s economy, and the annual income from tourism is 500 million euros. The Maltese Mediterranean Conference Center and hotels of the highest categories are equipped with everything necessary for holding conferences, seminars, meetings. These sectors bring Malta approx. 12 million dollars a year.
Agriculture plays a minor role in the country’s economy. There is a shortage of arable land and water for irrigation. Agriculture is carried out on small plots in the mountains, where mechanization is impossible. Main types of agricultural products: wheat, barley and fodder crops; potatoes, tomatoes, cauliflower, green peppers and other vegetables; various fruits; grape; flowers and seeds; pork, milk, poultry, eggs. Fisheries account for 1% of GDP.
Motorways have a total length of 1742 km.
Maritime transport: 2 major ports – Marsaxlokk and Valletta. The merchant fleet – a total of 1323 ships (with a carrying capacity of 1000 tons or more each). Registered under the “flag of convenience” ships of foreign countries: Greece – 627, the Russian Federation – 85, Turkey – 84, etc. 1 international airport, a 3047 m long concrete runway. cities in Europe and North Africa.
Telephone communication is provided by 187 thousand operating trunk telephone lines. The number of mobile phones in use is approx. 18 thousand units The island has 1 ground station of the Intelsat satellite system for communication across the Atlantic Ocean. 6 broadcasting stations; 255 thousand used radio receivers, 6 television broadcasting stations; 280 thousand used TVs.
The main export items are engineering products, transport equipment, manufactory, and foodstuffs. Top export partners: USA (20.2%), Germany (14.1%), France (10.2%), UK (8.8%), Italy (3.4%) (2001). Export volume – 2.0 billion dollars (2001). The main import items are engineering products, vehicles, energy carriers and chemical products, foodstuffs, drinks and tobacco. Leading import partners: Italy (19.9%), France (15.0%), USA (11.6%), UK (10.0%), Germany (8.7%) (2001). The volume of imports is 2.8 billion dollars (2001). Clothes remain the main subject of Maltese export to the Russian Federation. The main articles of Maltese import from the Russian Federation are oil and cement.
Service delivery has become one of the new areas of international economic cooperation for Malta. Malta provides foreign entrepreneurs with services of paramount importance: the provision of residence permits; granting permanent resident status, serving offshore companies, reloading goods, services of a “free port” capable of serving containers and providing oil and coal storage for use, services for foreigners to study banking and insurance, as well as English.
Modern economic and social policy is characterized by a stable political and economic situation, the absence of social upheavals, and low unemployment. The National Economic Development Strategy aims to encourage the production of highly processed products based on modern technologies. The price level in Malta is much lower than in Western Europe.
The country’s monetary system is based on the main legislative acts: the Banking Law (1970), the Law on Insurance Activities (1981), the Law on Offshore Trusts (1988), the Law on Entrepreneurship in Malta (1988). The policy of the Central Bank of Malta is reduced to financial savings, since the country’s main problems remain the state budget deficit, the growth of the national debt and maintaining competitiveness in the world market.
State budget: revenues $1.5 billion, expenditures $1.6 billion (2002). As a result of the reforms, the budget deficit is constantly decreasing. Public debt – 53% of GDP (2002). Taxes: income tax for residents – 10-15%, for funds transferred to Malta – 15%, for non-residents – 30-35%; income tax for residents – 35%; for non-residents – 5%.
The standard of living of the population is characterized by the fact that the number of people living on incomes below the poverty level is insignificant.
The country’s economy is in a dependent position on the foreign economic sphere: foreign trade, attracting foreign capital and foreign tourists. Malta develops its foreign economic activity with partners from the USA, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, France and other European and North African countries.