An isolated Slovenian literary memorial with religious content is the so-called Freising Monument, three manuscripts dated to the end of the 9th century or the beginning of the 9th century. A wider literary upturn was first achieved by the Slovenians with the Reformation around the middle of the 16th century. Leading figure was Primož Trubar, who translated the New Testament (1555–82) and among other things also wrote hymns. The entire Bible was translated by Yuri Dalmatin (1584). Occasional Slovenian writings were published by the victorious counter-Reformation in the 17th century. Modern Slovenian literature was founded in the latter part of the 18th century. Ultimately, as a result of the country’s population structure, literary developments during the 19th century became highly polarized and delayed. The Slovenes were a peasant people without any urbanized middle class, and the culture of the cities was long German. At the instigation of the church and the conservative patriots, literature received a people-forming and nurturing orientation that favored dilettantism. Those who set higher goals for the poem and saw its task in the liberation of the individual and the nation were met with distrust and reluctance.
- Countryaah: Population and demographics of Slovenia, including population pyramid, density map, projection, data, and distribution.
Despite this, the Slovenians got their national call early and seemingly unprepared in France. His 1825–45 created works are the starting point for all later Slovenian poems. His historical significance was that he showed that it was possible in Slovenian to write poetry on a par with the best European. His deed was passed on in the 1850’s by Fran Levstik, who was the leader and ideologue of the liberal youth laws. Levstik’s ambition, met with the same aversion on the part of the church and the conservatives that had previously affected the Prešeren, was to raise the Slovenes both culturally and politically to one with the other equal nation. Among those who passed on the works of Prešeren and Levstik in various ways are the late romantic poets Josip Stritar, Simon Jenko and Simon Gregorčič. Also included were Josip Jurčič, who wrote the first Slovenian novel (1866) and paved the way for realism, which mastered the literary scene during the last two decades of the 19th century. Janko Kersnik was in the novels and novels the foremost representative of the direction. Anton Aškerc defended liberal ideas in his poetry and contributed to the bourgeois-liberal camp’s increasingly strong position in the fight against the church and the conservatives.
The period from the end of the 19th century to the First World War is also referred to in Slovenian literature as “the modern”. It produced two poets of European rank: Oton Župančič, who was the portal figure of Slovenian modernist poetry, and Ivan Cankar, who had a similar position in prose and drama.
Poetry after the First World War was mainly inspired by expressionism of various estimations. Among the representatives are Srečko Kosovel, Tone Seliškar and Edvard Kocbek, the latter two leading poets also after 1945. The emphasis of the strong social engagement that characterized Slovenian inter-war literature was shifted from poetry to a social life in the mid-1920’s. The best known name is Prežihov Voranc. In the 1930’s, Anton Ingolić, Miško Kranjec and Ivan Potrč appeared. Within the drama, Bratko Kreft joined them. All were leading poets even after the war.
Postwar Slovenian poetry has developed within a broader modernist register. Ciril Zlobec, Dane Zajc and Tomaž Šalamun are among the most significant. To the already mentioned realities of the 1930’s can be added within the prose Ciril Kosmač. Matej Bor has represented poetry, prose and drama.
Among writers active in the 21st century are Drago Jančar, novelist, playwright and essayist. As a critic and cultural writer, Slavoj Žižek has gained growing international attention since the 1990’s.
Drama and theater
In Slovenia, the theater was for a long time largely German-speaking. A Slovenian pleasure play was erected in 1789. After that no plays were allowed in this language until after 1848, when Slovenian theater and drama companies were given the opportunity to work. It was not until 1892 that a Slovenian national theater was opened in Ljubljana.
Ivan Cankar’s plays from the turn of the 20th century belong to the Slovenian stage’s standing repertoire. In 2012, there were 47 theaters and theater groups in Slovenia. Dramatics in the 21st century include Dušan Jovanović and Draga Potočnjak.
Only after the nationalization of the film industry after the Second World War did regular film production come to an end in Slovenia as well as in other federal states of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Founded in 1947, Triglav Films was responsible for a number of years for Slovenian film production alongside tasks such as import, export and screening of films. This was done with government grants but also under state control from Belgrade.
The first Slovenian film after World War II, “Na svoji zemlji” (1948), was made by France Štiglic (1919-93), whose work will continue to be characterized by his experiences of the war. The 1960’s meant a vitamin injection for the Yugoslav film, so also in Slovenia. Boštjan Hladnik (1929–2006), educated in Paris and new wave-influenced after working as an assistant for ao. Jean-Luc Godard, was one of those who revitalized the domestic film. The most original filmmaker, however, was Matjaž Klopčič (1934–2007), who made himself known with complex dramas about memory and the past, as well as contemporary satires.
The 1970’s, under increased political pressure, meant a creative crisis and dominance of fairly simple partisan films. A greater thematic and formal freedom was offered in the 1980’s, when filmmakers such as Karpo Godina (born 1943), Boris Jurjaševič (born 1955) and Franci Slak (1953–2007) became prominent names, in the 1990’s followed by directors such as Andrej Mlakar (born 1952), Jure Pervanje (born 1940) and Damjan Kozole (born 1964).
After independence, TV has become the largest film producer, often with contributions from the Slovenian Film Fund. The country produces 3 to 5 feature films annually.
See also Yugoslav movie.
The medieval visual arts in Slovenia appeared during the 12th and 13th centuries through decorative elements on the churches along the coast of Istria. The sculpture during the second half of the 13th century is represented by the Godfather in Krakovo, Ljubljana and Solčava. The Gothic in Slovenia was deeply rooted and survived in the mountainous regions until the 17th century. In connection with the architecture, a decorative plastic was developed. From the 1300’s you can see the influence of Giotto’s painting. Around 1420, significant frescoes were performed by Janez from Brunek’s workshop in Ptujska Gora. Around 1440, the influence of Central European influence in Ljubljana was strengthened by the work of Janez Ljubljanski. In the mid-1400’s, a program was carried out to adorn the smaller churches with pictures. Gradually assert an influence from the German and Dutch renaissance, while an orientation towards Italy takes place during the 17th century. Contributing to the spread of the new flavor was Akademia Operosorum, founded in Ljubljana in 1693. For the development of the baroque illusionist painting, Julio Quagilo was important (the cathedral in Ljubljana). The Ljubljana Baroque is a synthesis of Venetian and Central European elements. This style influenced some Croatian Baroque painters.
In the middle of the 19th century, portrait painter Matevž Langus in Ljubljana stood out. Impressionism in Slovenia was represented by painters such as Rihard Jakopić and Ivan Grahor, while the sculpture at the end of the 19th century is characterized by works by Ivan Zajc and Franc Beneker. The interwar period is characterized by many prominent graphic artists, such as Ivan Pilon, the Kralj brothers, Ivan Čergo, Božidar Jakac and Miha Maleš. During the post-war period, the graphics – represented by a.k.a. Božidar Jakac and his school – won international recognition. The graphic biennial in Ljubljana was founded in 1955.
In the 1980’s the Neue Slowenische Kunst movement originated in Ljubljana with, among other things, the Laibach music group and the artist collective IRWIN, controversial for their use of symbols reminiscent of totalitarian states. Among artists active in the 21st century are the sculptor Dragica Čadež, the painter Boris Zaplatil and the photo artist Marko Modić.
The folk music in Slovenia is very varied; it has old-fashioned Slavic features and is at the same time related to Central European folk music (mainly German, Austrian-Alpine and Hungarian). Durton species are common, as are changing rhythms. The singing tradition is rich and contains many genres. Many songs are performed in a multiple voice, two or four voices are most common. An older instrumentarium with alphorn, orglice (pan flute), bagpipes and flutes was expanded during the 18th century with violin, often in ensembles with oprekelj (chopping board), viola and small bass.
From the second half of the 19th century, ensembles with the string instrument tamburica and plaque instruments became popular. During the 20th century, many of the older instruments were replaced by accordion, (alp-) citra, harmonica, clarinet and guitar, and small string and wind ensembles of the alpine type. Popular dances include polka, roller and šotiš (scottis).
Cultural politics in New Yugoslavia led to the emergence of new forms of popular popular music and folklore groups, the best known started by France Marolt in 1948. With the brothers Slavko Avsenik (born 1929) and Vilko Avsenik (born 1928) and their band got accordion-based Slovenian polka and drum major successes in Central Europe and the United States. Since 1990, older folk music has gained renewed popularity, among other things. through the song group Katice.
Traces of Catholic, church music cultivation are from the 400’s. In the absence of rich courts and larger church institutions, Slovenian musicians sought a long time abroad, such as Jacob Handl (Jacobus Gallus). Italian-style Baroque music was composed by Janez Krstnik Dolar (born circa 1620, died 1673) and Gabriel Plavec (died 1641).
During the 18th century the influence of Italian music, especially opera, was strengthened. As a music institution, Academia Philarmonicorum (founded 1701), Philharmonic Society (1794) and General School of Music (1815) received major importance as a source of Viennese symphonic music. During the second half of the 19th century, a movement arose with choirs and musicians who cultivated music in national and romantic styles. A dominant role in music life was given the cultural association Glasbena Matica (founded in 1872) with choirs, publishers and music schools. Prominent composers were Benjamin Ipavec (1829–1909), Kamilo Mašek (1831–59), Davorin Jenko (1834–1914), Anton Foerster (1837–1926), and Fran Gerbič (1840–1917)). Late romantic features feature music by Risto Savin (1859-1948) and Gojmir Krek (1875-1942). Impressionism, expressionism and modern influences can be seen in Marij Kogoj (1895–1956), Matija Bravničar (1897–1997), Lucijan Marija Škerjanc (1900–73) and Slavko Osterc (1895–1941).
After World War II, art music gained a number of new institutions, with music schools across the country, professional choirs and philharmonic orchestras in, among others, Ljubljana (1947) and Maribor. The pursuit of classical ideals and the incorporation of new technologies can be found in many later composers. Uroš Krek (1922–2008), Vinko Globes and Aldo Kumar (born 1954).
During the 1950’s, a vital popular music emerged throughout Yugoslavia, influenced by new styles from Western Europe and the United States.
Slovenia became a center for punk in the 1970’s, with groups such as Pankrti, Niet and Otroci Socializma. In the 1980’s, the Neue Slowenische Kunst movement originated in Ljubljana, with the internationally successful avant-garde band Laibach, among others.
By the early 2000’s, a broad pop and rock scene had developed, with popular bands such as Siddharta and Big Foot Mama. The cross-country chorus Perpetuum Jazzile (founded in 1983) has also had international success.
Slovenian folk culture has largely been determined by the country’s geographical location, which – compared to other South Slavic groups – has provided better conditions for influences from Central Europe (German, Italian, Hungarian). This has been shown above all in the buildings, in the art of building (timber houses) and in the home furnishings and in agriculture, which in Slovenia was conducted both extensively and intensively. These features of cultural influence were partly conveyed to other parts of the Balkans.
The patriarchal family system prevailing among other South Slavs disappeared early in Slovenia. Age-old, partly ancient Slavic features can be found in, among other things. wedding customs, party dishes, annual fires, vegetation rites and magic formulas. The same patterns are found in fairy tales and tales (wilds, natural beings, vampires as well as magical and animistic performances). The popular customs were partly replaced by Catholic calendar celebrations, and the older magical beings were suppressed by the biblical devil figure. The Christian saints (Elijah, Georg, Nicholas and others) were found side by side with the Slavic thunder and heavenly god Perun.