In January 1990 there was a Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia which abolished the leading role of the League itself and Slovenia founded the Democratic Renewal Party.
In April 1990 the first elections took place which were won by a coalition of six parties including the nationalist far right, the greens and the social democrats. At the same time the presidential elections were won by M. Kucan, who in July 1990 declared Slovenia’s sovereignty by speeding up the separatist process.
According to Abbreviationfinder, an acronym site which also features history of Slovenia, the independence referendum took place in December 1990 and in June 1991 the proclamation of independence itself.
But Yugoslavia reacted and a military clash took place between June and July, but soon ended, since on July 10 a compromise was signed in Brijuni which established the “ceasefire” and a 3-month wait for the proclamation of the ‘independence.
When the Yugoslav armed forces withdrew in October, the acceptance of Slovenia’s independent state was clear. Immediately the dinar was replaced with the thaler and in December a new Republican Constitution was launched.
In April 1992 a debate began in Parliament tending to establish the privatization of companies and the restitution of properties to the former owners. Trust fell to the government, which was replaced by a predominantly center coalition led by J. Drnovsek.
The first political and presidential elections took place in December 1992. Kucan was confirmed president of the republic while the Liberal Democratic Party came first. The new government was a coalition with the United List, a leftist organization.
On the economy, after independence, there was a sharp drop in exports to the Yugoslav markets, and not even the increased traffic to those of Austria and Germany could exempt Slovenia from a strong regression, which also affected industrial production. Inflation and unemployment increased.
There were difficulties in relations with Croatia but also with Italy, which demanded the return of some properties left on Slovenian soil after the redesign of the borders at the end of the war. These difficulties with the Italian government were still present in 1994.
But in the meantime, in the second half of 1993, a huge traffic of arms was discovered, destined for Bosnia, on Slovenian territory. The scandal involved Kucan and Drnovsek and also the Minister of Defense J. Jansa who resigned in March 1994.
During this same period the liberal democrats, together with other minor parties, founded the Slovenian Liberal Democracy, which immediately became the main force of the government. Conflicts immediately arose with the Christian Democrats, so strong that they caused the resignation of L. Peterle, Foreign Minister, in September 1994.
At the same time, a certain tendency towards exclusive nationalism gradually increased, which could not stand the presence of Yugoslav brand etheias and even a referendum was required to approve a law depriving Bosnian residents there of Slovenian citizenship.
In the international arena, Slovenia had to solve some problems with Italy, which arose during the Berlusconi government, and related to the unreturned properties of the Italian exiles.
Even with the European Union, conflicts had added but, just with the mediation of the Italian government, Kucan managed to bring Slovenia to an association agreement, signed on June 10, 1996.
Even inside Kucan managed to bring the legislature to fruition, despite the abandonment of the Social Democrats, until 10 November 1996, when the elections assigned the victory to the Slovenian Liberal Democracy. It was not until February 1997 that Drnovsek was able to form the new government, formed by the Slovenian Liberal Democracy, the Slovenian People’s Party and the Pensioners’ Party. But contrasts arose between them as, while the former proposed market liberalization, the others, conservatives, even questioned entry into the European Union.
However, in accordance with the agreement signed with the European Union at the time, the Liberal Democrats, in July 1997, brought an amendment to article 68 of the Constitution, and this to review and correct the rules governing the properties of foreigners in Slovenia. This led to a marked improvement in relations with Italy, which took steps to mediate the accession to the European Union and to NATO of Slovenia and then, together with Hungary, gave birth to a Trilateral agreement of 23 October of 1996, for a wide collaboration in the different sectors.
But in international politics there were strong disputes, especially with Zagreb, for land borders, two thirds of which are still in dispute. In addition, Slovenia, precisely because of its never defined borders, had to renounce the strengthening of the port of Koper, in order not to incur the illegal crossing of both Italian and Croatian territorial waters.
And also financial issues related to the deposits of Croatian citizens in the Ljubljana Bank, frozen by the Slovenian government.
Throughout the year 1998 the ruling nationalists tried in every way to support national interests over Community interests, thus delaying the country’s entry into Europe.
There were many changes at the top of the government but, overall, in 1999, even after the introduction of the much feared value added tax, the Slovenian economy did not suffer major repercussions. What instead had a negative impact was the conflict in Kosovo, in which, as a member of the European Union, he had to support NATO’s bombing of Yugoslavia, also in view of a strategic future entry of Slovenia into the Atlantic Alliance.