In accordance with the Constitution, adopted by national referendum on November 28, 1998, the country is a parliamentary republic. Check computerminus for political system of Albania.
The highest representative and legislative body – the Assembly of the Republic of Albania (since 2002 the chairman – Servet Pellumbi) consists of 140 deputies elected for a term of 4 years. At the same time, 100 of them are elected by the majoritarian system in single-member constituencies, and the remaining 40 – by party lists on the basis of proportional representation.
For a political party or a coalition to acquire deputy mandates, a limit of 2.5% of the votes received in elections is set.
The Assembly of the Republic of Albania, by a majority of 2/3 of the payroll, by secret ballot elects the President of the Republic for a period of 5 years (since 2002 – Alfred Moisiu). The President can be re-elected for a new term only once.
The president issues a mandate to form the composition of the future government (since 2002 the prime minister is Fatos Nano) to a candidate nominated by the political party that received the largest number of votes in the parliamentary elections. To approve the composition of the cabinet of ministers in parliament, a simple majority of votes of deputies is sufficient.
An important role in the formation and functioning of elected bodies of power belongs to political parties, they are registered approx. 50 (2003).
The leading parties and main political rivals are the Socialist Party (chairman – Fatos Nano) and the Democratic Party (Sali Berisha). They were respectively headed by those formed in the 2nd floor. 1990s two major coalitions: the center-left Alliance for the State and the right-wing Alliance for Victory. In addition to the Socialist Party, the first coalition included the Social Democratic Party (Skender Ginushi), the Agrarian Party (Lufter Juveli), the Democratic Alliance (Neritan Cheka), the Union for Human Rights (Vangel Dule). The second coalition, along with the Democratic Party, included the Republican Party (Fatmir Mediu), the National Front (Spetim Rrochi), the Movement for the Rule of Law (Ekrem Spahia), the Liberal Democratic Union (Teodor Lacho).
A prominent role on the political scene of the country was also played by such independent parties as the Party of Democrats (reformist) – chairman Genz Pollo, the Social Democracy Party (Pascal Millo), the Renewed Democratic Party (Dashamir Shekhi), the Democratic Christian Party (Nicolle Leschi) and the Communist Party ( Hysni Milloshi).
In contrast to the diversity of views on the domestic political development of the country, the vast majority of political parties supported the foreign policy course of the authorities for the full integration of Albania into Euro-Atlantic structures, primarily for accession to the EU. The importance of this direction was also emphasized by the fact that in 2003 the only post of Deputy Prime Minister was combined with the post of Minister of State for European Integration (Ermelinda Mexi). At the same time, the main political forces of the country were a priori determined to actively support all American initiatives in the international arena.
Along with the manifestation of interest in establishing good neighborliness in the Balkan region, Albania actively politically supported Kosovo separatism, causing tension in relations with Serbia.
The foreign policy orientation towards Albania’s entry into the Euro-Atlantic structures also determined the development of its Armed Forces (AF). The Defense Policy Strategy of the country, approved by Parliament in January 2000, which formalized the long-term goal of Albania’s full membership in NATO no later than 2010, established the strength of the Armed Forces: 31,000 troops in peacetime and 120,000 in wartime.