The Czech Republic is a sovereign, unified and democratic state based on the rule of law, based on respect for the fundamental rights and freedoms of man and citizen. The Constitution of the Czech Republic was adopted on January 1, 1993. Administratively, the Czech Republic is divided into 14 regions (the capital Prague is especially distinguished as a region): Prague, Central Bohemian, South Bohemian, Pilsensky, Karlovy Vary, Ustetsky, Liberetsky, Hradec Kralove, Pardubice, Vysochina, South Moravian, Olomouc, Zlinsky, Moravian-Silesian. The regions are divided into territorial-administrative formations. The ongoing reform of local self-government is aimed at the enlargement of territorial municipalities with the expansion of their rights. The largest cities (thousand people): Prague, Brno (389), Ostrava (324), Pilsen (171). Check computerminus for political system of Czech Republic.
The highest legislative body is the Parliament, which consists of two chambers: the Chamber of Deputies, which includes 200 deputies, elected for 4 years, and the Senate, which includes 81 senators, elected for 6 years, with a rotation of 1/3 every 2 years. deputy corps.
The highest body of executive power is the government, which is accountable to the Chamber of Deputies of Parliament. As a rule, the government is formed by representatives of the political parties that received the greatest support of citizens in the elections. The president of the republic appoints the chairman of the government, and, at his suggestion, the rest of the members of the government cabinet.
The head of state is the President of the Czech Republic. Elected by both houses of parliament for a term of 5 years, with a maximum of two terms. The age limit for electing the president is over 40 years old. The head of state is President Vaclav Klaus. The head of the supreme body of legislative power is the chairman of the Chamber of Deputies of Parliament, Lubomir Zaoralek, and the chairman of the Senate of the Parliament, Piotr Pithart. The head of the supreme executive power is Prime Minister Vladimir Shpidla.
The basic principles of the electoral system are determined by the Constitution of 1993. Parliamentary elections are carried out on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. Elections to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament are held according to the system of proportional representation, to the Senate – according to the majoritarian system. Only Czech citizens who have reached at least 18 years of age on the second day of elections can participate in parliamentary elections. A citizen of the Czech Republic who has the right to participate in elections and has reached the age of 21 on the second day of elections at least on the second day of elections, and who has reached 40 years of age, can be elected to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament.
Elections to the Chamber of Deputies are held according to the electoral lists of political parties, movements or coalitions in 14 territorial-administrative districts-krais established by law, to the Senate – in 81 electoral districts. Depending on population density, the law establishes the maximum number of mandates on the electoral lists per constituency. An electoral threshold has been set for entering the Chamber of Deputies: for a political party or movement – 5%, for a coalition of two parties – 10%, for a coalition of three parties – 15%, for a coalition of four parties or more – 20%.
Municipal territorial formations, according to the Constitution, have the right to self-government. Management bodies – representative offices are elected by direct vote for 4 years. Citizens of the Czech Republic who have reached the age of 18 and permanently reside in the territory of this municipality have the right to participate and be elected. The number of members of municipal representations is established depending on the population. Currently, the Czech Republic is undergoing a reform of local governments, in accordance with which the number of lower territorial-administrative entities will be reduced, and their functions will be expanded.
Outstanding statesmen who made a significant contribution to strengthening statehood and building a democratic society: Tomas Garrik Masaryk (1850–1937), founder of the Czechoslovak state and first president of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918–34, humanist philosopher; Vaclav Havel (b. 1936) – in 1989-2002, the president of the first Czechoslovak, and since 1993 – the Czech Republic, one of the main leaders of the “velvet revolution” in 1989, playwright, writer, philosopher; Vaclav Klaus (b. 1941) – politician, economist, from the first days of the “Velvet Revolution” a leading representative of the public movement Civil Forum, in 1991-2002 chairman of the Civic Democratic Party, one of the authors of the Czech reform, in 1998 – June 2002 – Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies of Parliament, since February 2003 – President of the Czech Republic.
The Czech Constitution legislates the political system of a democratic civil society, which is based on the free and voluntary creation and competition of political parties and social movements that respect fundamental democratic principles and reject violence as a means to achieve their goals.
In socialist Czechoslovakia, under conditions of a practically one-party system, the monopoly of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia operated, the number of which was 1.7 million people, every seventh citizen of the country over 18 years old was a communist.
The Czech Republic is in the process of forming a multi-party political system. On the basis of the Law “On Association in Political Parties and Political Movements” (1991), the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic registered 40 active parties and 25 public movements (20 parties and 10 public associations were suspended, the court decided to dissolve or liquidate). In addition, there are many civil associations operating on an application basis. According to the results of the last parliamentary elections, held in 2002, the following are represented in the parliament: the Czech Social Democratic Party, the Civic Democratic Party, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and Moravia, the Christian Democratic Union – the Czechoslovak People’s Party, the Union of Freedom – the Democratic Union.
Public opinion polls show that public organizations involved in the protection of human rights, environmental initiatives, and church organizations enjoy the highest credit of public confidence. The participation of the population in the most massive public organization under socialism – trade unions, in which 6.5 million people were organized, has sharply decreased. If in 1990 62% of people over 15 years old were in trade unions, then in 2000 – 14%.
Leading business organizations: Chamber of Commerce – Chamber of Commerce and Industry, established to support entrepreneurship; The Union of Industry and Transport is an independent voluntary organization that unites 30 trade unions; Mixed Chamber of Commerce “Vostok”, whose activities are aimed at expanding economic relations between business entities of the Czech Republic and the CIS countries.
The main priority of the modern economic and foreign policy of the Czech Republic is integration into the economic and military-political structures of the EU. In 1999 the Czech Republic was officially admitted to NATO. The National Defense Strategy is aimed at ensuring national security and fulfilling obligations within the framework of international collective security structures. As a result of the military reform, by 2007 it is planned to switch over to a professional army, the size of which will be reduced from 64,000 to 34,000–36,000 professional soldiers and 10,000 civilians. Conscription will be maintained in the form of a short course of military training (currently compulsory military service is 12 months).
The Czech Republic has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1934).