Greece is a democratic constitutional state with a republican form of government. The Constitution adopted on June 11, 1975 is in force. Check computerminus for political system of Greece.
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral parliament, consisting of 300 seats. Parliamentary elections are held once every 4 years, they are direct and secret. Voting rights are given to citizens over 18 years of age. The parliamentary majority gets the right to form a government headed by the prime minister. Parliament elects the head of state – the president, for a term of 5 years. Executive power is exercised by the president and the government. Since 1995, the President of the Republic is Konstantinos Stephanopoulos (second term). The powers of the president are limited, he does not take a direct and active part in politics. The government consists of a cabinet that includes the prime minister, ministers, and ministers without portfolio. Since 1996, as Prime Minister, Costas Simitis, leader of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK).
Prominent politicians: Andreas Papandreou (1919-96), Konstantinos Karamanlis (1907-98), Charilaos Trikoupis (1832-96), Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936).
Administrative division: 13 administrative regions – Attica, Western Macedonia, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Central Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, Ionian Islands, Central Greece, Western Greece, Peloponnese, Aegean North, Aegean South, Crete. The regions are subdivided into 51 prefectures (nome): Achaea, Aetolia kai Acarnania, Argolis, Arcadia, Arta, Attica, Chalkidiki, Chanion, Chios, Dodecanese, Drama, Evros, Evrytania, Evoia, Florina, Phokis, Phthiotis, Grevena, Ileia, Imathia, Ioannia, Herakleion, Karditsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefalonia, Kerkyra, Kilkis, Corinthia, Kozani, Cyclades, Laconia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lefkada, Lesbos, Magnisia, Messinia, Pela, Pieria, Preveza, Refinnis, Rodopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Boeotia, Xanthi, Zakynthos and one autonomous region, Mount Athos.
The largest cities: Athens, Thessaloniki (358 thousand people), Piraeus (178 thousand people).
The system of authorities is multi-level, based on the principle of decentralization. There are local authorities of the first and second levels and the regional administration.
The first level of local authorities consists of municipalities and communities, which are responsible for solving local issues. The total number of communities and municipalities is less than 1,000. The second level of local government is 51 prefectures, headed by prefectural councils and prefects, who are directly elected by citizens (since 1994). Local authorities of the second level deal with more general issues.
Thirteen regions are governed by general secretaries who are appointed by the government. The secretaries general are representatives of the government. They support central government functions and services and assist the government in formulating regional development policies.
The political arena in modern Greece is essentially dominated by two big parties, namely PASOK (founded by Andreas Papandreou in 1974, chaired by Kostandinos Simitis) and New Democracy (founded by Konstantinos Karamanlis in 1974, chaired by Kostas Karamanlis), which is the main right party. Other parties represented in the Greek Parliament are KKE (Communist Party of Greece, chaired by Aleka Papariga) and Siaspismos (Coalition of the Left, chaired by Nikolaos Konstandopoulos).
In foreign policy, Greece adheres to the principle of adherence to the standards of international legality and respect for international law. Greece is trying to pursue a peaceful and good neighborly policy aimed at establishing peace and stability in the southeastern Mediterranean. A constructive dialogue has begun with Turkey, aimed at defusing tensions in relations between the two countries that have arisen over the issue of the territorial belonging of the islands in the Aegean Sea.
Greece takes an active part in the UN efforts to resolve the Cyprus problem caused by the 1974 Turkish invasion and occupation of the northern part of Cyprus.
Greece participates in the work of various international organizations, has been a member of the UN, the Council of Europe, and the OSCE since their foundation. Greece joined the EU (then the European Economic Community) in 1981 after a long period of association (since 1961). Greece actively supports the future enlargement of the EU, especially the accession of Cyprus as a task of strategic importance for Europe and the Middle East in the context of strengthening stability in the region.
A feature of the foreign and domestic policy of Greece is the existence of an extensive Greek diaspora abroad: St. 4 million people Most of them are located in the USA (more than 2 million), where the Greek lobby is considered quite influential. In addition, the Greek diaspora exists in Australia (about 700 thousand), in Canada (350 thousand), in Europe (over 500 thousand). The World Council of Hellenes Abroad (1995) coordinates the interaction of regional organizations.
The Greek Armed Forces are based on a combination of a professional army and conscription for men (duration of conscription from 16 to 23 months). Defense spending is 4.5% of GDP, the highest in NATO. The armed forces consist of the Greek army, navy, air force, police and national guard. The total number of armed forces of Georgia (including in reserve) is 2.6 million people. Greek military personnel participated as part of the UN peacekeeping force in peacekeeping operations in Somalia and in other missions in Albania, Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia.
Greece has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1924).