In 2002, there were 16 parties in the country, most of which were part of the center-left and center-right coalitions. The first (“Olive Tree”) included: DPLS, Daisy Association (People’s Party, Italian Renaissance, Union of Democrats for Europe, Democratic Party), Sunflower Association (Federation of the Greens, Italian Socialist Democrats) and the Italian Communist the consignment. The second (“House of Freedom”) included: “Forward, Italy”, the Northern League, the National Alliance and the White Flower Association (Christian Democratic Center and United Christian Democrats). The Radicals, the South Tyrol Party and the Socialist Movement remained unaligned. The leading force of the first block – DPLS, the second – “Forward, Italy”; bloc leaders – F. Rutelli and S. Berlusconi. Check computerminus for political system of Italy.
In 1992-94 and 1995-2001, the center-left coalitions headed by J. Amato, C. Ciampi, L. Dini, R. Prodi and M. D’Alema were in power, from April 1994 to January 1995 – the first government of C.Berlusconi. In the 2001 elections, held under the new system, the center-right bloc won a majority in both houses of parliament – 367 seats in the lower and 177 in the upper (of which Vperyod, I. accounted for 189 and 82 seats, respectively). The center-left coalition won 248 seats in the lower house and 128 in the upper house (including the DPLS – 138 and 62, respectively).
The leading business organizations are formed according to the industry: in industry – Confindustria, in trade – Confcommerce, in agriculture – Confagriculture, in the field of small business and crafts – Confapi, in the financial sector – the Association of Italian Banks (ABI) and the Association of Savings Banks (ACRI). ). These umbrella organizations act as pressure groups in dialogue with the social partners and the government. The most influential of these, the Confindustria (Confederation of Italian Industrialists), founded in 1910, unites 106 territorial and 99 branch associations, which in turn are grouped into regional and branch federations. Confindustria has representation in the EU and wide international relations.
The world of work is also well organized. Three large trade union associations have formed in the country: the General Italian Confederation of Labor (CGLT), founded in 1906 and historically associated with leftist parties, has 5.3 million members (mainly blue-collar workers) and has a strong position in the North; The Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions (ICPT), traditionally associated with the Christian Democratic movement, unites 4.3 million people. (mostly white-collar workers) and is widely represented in the South, as well as in the state apparatus; The Italian Union of Labor (IST), focused on social democrats and republicans, has a membership of 1.8 million people. (mostly middle managers). There are also autonomous trade unions – for example, railway workers.
The cooperative sector of the economy has similar organizations. The largest of these, the National League of Cooperatives and Mutual Help Societies (NLKOV), was founded in 1893 and is historically associated with the left movement. Its three-tiered structure is built as a network of industry associations and regional committees, supported by local committees (Federkoop), associations and consortiums. The second leading association, the Confederation of Italian Cooperatives (CIC), was created in 1919 on a Christian Democratic basis. In 2002, there were 11.4 thousand cooperatives in the NLKOV with 5.1 million members, and in the CFC there were 17.8 thousand cooperatives with 2.7 million members. There are also two smaller associations and a certain number of cooperatives that are not part of any of these organizations. Cooperative structures developed in Italy from the 2nd floor. 19th century
An important place in the system of public organizations is occupied by the Chambers of Commerce for Industry, Agriculture and Crafts. Their network includes 94 provincial chambers, united in the parent organization “Unyonkamere”. There is also a foreign network, incl. bilateral chambers operating in parallel in Italy and other countries (Italian-Russian and Russian-Italian chambers were established in Milan in 1909 and in St. Petersburg in 1911).
Around the parties, trade unions, cooperative associations, the church, and also independently of them, St. 220 thousand public organizations and groups of various colors, forming the fabric of civil society. According to the first qualification of non-profit organizations (1999), 2/3 of them belong to the sphere of culture, sports and leisure activities. 630 thousand people work in public organizations. paid staff and 3.2 million volunteers. According to polls, ca. 25% of the adult population has experience of participating in the activities of religious organizations. Influential elements of civil society include the structures mentioned above that interact with local authorities – functional autonomies and meetings.
The internal policy of the last 10-15 years can be characterized as a gradual and as yet unfinished transition from the 1st to the 2nd republic. The main components of this process are the change in the electoral law, the expansion of the rights of local authorities, the renewal of the political class, the unblocking of the mechanism for the rotation of party coalitions in power, the emerging trend of strengthening the powers of the president (the possibility of direct elections to this post is being discussed). The political process is based on a broad program of structural reforms initiated by the forces of the center left. The coming to power of the center-right changed only the tactical position of the government in carrying out these reforms, leaving their general vector unchanged. The role of the EU and other external factors in Italy’s domestic political life is growing.
The socio-political system is based on a developed mechanism of democracy and the commitment of the majority of the population to the ideas of parliamentarism, political and cultural pluralism, and a reformist path of development. The weak point of this system is the incompleteness of the process of national consolidation – the preservation of the traditions of regional particularism and especially deep socio-cultural differences between the North and the South. Hence the latent political instability and, as a result, the deceleration of the reforms necessary for the country.
Foreign policy from the first post-war years was built on the principles of Europeanism and Atlanticism. The main directions of Italy’s activities in the international arena were determined by the fact of its membership in NATO and the EU. However, the great authority of the left forces in the country obliged its ruling circles to take their position into account when formulating foreign policy. At the turn of the 1950-60s. Italy was among the first countries in the West to conclude long-term trade agreements and commercial deals with the USSR. Being one of the main Western partners of the Russian Federation, it actively advocates the rapprochement of the Russian Federation with the EU, for the creation of a common European economic space.
The armed forces of Italy include the Ground Forces, numbering (1996) 175 thousand people. and 520 thousand reservists, the Navy (44 thousand), the Air Force (67.8 thousand) and the Carabinieri Corps (111.8 thousand). There is a marine corps (0.6 thousand). The main naval bases are located in La Spezia, Naples, Taranto and Ancona, bases of smaller size – in Brindisi and Venice. Military duty for men is established from the age of 18, the term of service is 12 months. Military spending in 2002 amounted to $20.2 billion (1.6% of GDP).
Italy has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1944).