Lithuania is a presidential republic. The Constitution adopted by referendum on October 25, 1992 is in force. Check computerminus for political system of Lithuania.
Administrative division – 10 counties, 44 districts, 92 cities, 22 towns. The largest cities (thousand people): Vilnius, Kaunas (378.9), Klaipeda (about 193), Siauliai (133.9), Panevezys (119.8).
State power in accordance with the Constitution is exercised by the Seimas, the President and the Government.
The highest legislative body is the Seim (unicameral parliament), consisting of 141 deputies elected on the basis of universal, direct, secret suffrage for 4 years (71 from single-member constituencies according to the majoritarian system and 70 according to the principle of proportional representation based on party lists). The Seimas discusses, adopts, publishes legislative acts, approves or rejects the candidacy of the prime minister proposed by the president, controls the activities of the government, establishes taxes, holds elections to local governments, ratifies international treaties. Elections for the new Seimas took place in October 2000, and A. Paulauskas, the leader of the New Union party (social liberals), became chairman, replacing Landsbergis, the leader of the conservatives, in this post.
The head of state is the president, elected by universal, direct, secret suffrage for a term of 5 years, no more than 2 times in a row. The President represents the State of Lithuania, resolves the most important issues of foreign policy together with the government, appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister with the approval of the Seimas, appoints and dismisses ministers on the proposal of the Prime Minister, issues acts-decrees, has the right to veto decisions of the Seimas. He may early dissolve the Seimas. The Seimas, elected at extraordinary elections, has the right to call early presidential elections by a majority (3/5) of votes. The early presidential elections, the second round of which ended on June 27, 2004, were won by the 77-year-old independent centrist V. Adamkus, who in many ways contributed to Lithuania’s entry into NATO and the European Union. He was already president from 1998-2003. and returned to the post of head of state after his retirement. V. Adamkus replaced R. Paksas, the third president after the restoration of independence by Lithuania and the first head of state in Europe, who was impeached in early April 2004 (for dubious connections with international criminal structures, including Russian ones). V. Adamkus was supported by the Union of Liberals and the Center, the Union of the Fatherland, and the Social Liberals. Adamkus’s victory means the strengthening of Lithuania’s pro-Western orientation, as well as closer ties with the states of the West.
The highest body of executive power is the government, which presents the program to the Seimas and, after its approval, takes the oath. Prime Minister A. Brazauskas has headed the 12th (since 1990) government since July 2001. He was appointed to this post by President Adamkus after the fall of the coalition government of the right-wing and center parties of Paksas due to disagreements over economic and privatization issues. The Seimas approved the program of the government of the “left majority”, which promised to speed up the reforms necessary for joining NATO and the EU, turn domestic politics towards a socially oriented market, reduce unemployment and poverty while maintaining a tight financial policy. In March 2003, the composition of the new government of the country, proposed by Brazauskas, was approved (12 out of 13 ministers retained posts in the cabinet).
There are 37 registered parties and political organizations in Lithuania. The most influential right-wing party in the country is the conservative Tevines Sayunga (Union of the Fatherland, SO), created on the basis of the Sajudis socio-political movement, registered on May 25, 1993, chairman V. Landsbergis; Christian Democratic Party of Lithuania (HDPL), a right-wing party, registered on September 22, 1990, chairman Z. Zinkevičius; Democratic Party of Labor of Lithuania (DPTL), a reformist party of social democratic orientation, registered on December 19, 1990, has the status of the main opposition force, chairman C. Yurshenas; “Union of the Center”, a party of the center-right, registered on October 27, 1993, chairman R. Ozolas; Social Democratic Party of Lithuania (SDPL), center-left, registered on January 17, 1990, chairman V. Andriukaitis; “New Union” (social liberals), center-left party, established in June 1998, chairman A. Paulaskas; Lithuanian Liberal Union, center-right liberal democratic party, registered March 11, 1991, chairman since December 1999 R. Paksas; New Democracy (Lithuanian Women’s Party), registered April 20, 1995, chairman K. Prunskienė; Christian Democratic Union (CDU), political organization, registered on August 14, 1996, chairman K. Bobialis. Prunskene; Christian Democratic Union (CDU), political organization, registered on August 14, 1996, chairman K. Bobialis. Prunskene; Christian Democratic Union (CDU), political organization, registered on August 14, 1996, chairman K. Bobialis.
There are four republican trade union centers in the country: the Center of Trade Unions, the Union of Trade Unions, the Lithuanian Labor Federation and the Union of Workers (actually collapsed). Lithuania’s accession to the International Labor Organization (ILO) in 1991 allowed the trade unions to conclude a General Agreement with the government, in which the tripartite principle of partnership in the labor market operates: government, trade unions, employers.
In Lithuania, a situation has developed in which two major power structures are controlled by opposing ideological forces. In the parliament of the last convocation, it was possible to create a center-left majority, grouped around Prime Minister A. Brazauskas. The opposition centre-right minority is represented by the Union of Liberals, the Union of the Center and the Modern Christian Union. As a result, the general political situation in the country largely depends on the position of Prime Minister A. Brazauskas. The ruling Social Democrats and Social Liberals intend to keep the coalition, which is the guarantor of stability in the country. Prime Minister Brazauskas stands for constructive cooperation with the new President V. Adamkus, who adheres to the former priorities in foreign policy – membership in the EU and NATO, strengthening of all-round Baltic cooperation,
NATO membership is one of the main objectives of Lithuania’s foreign and defense policy. 2% of GDP is allocated for defense. Such funding based on the Treaty between all parliamentary parties will be maintained until 2004. The preparation and reform of the national defense system is carried out in accordance with NATO standards. The country is divided into 3 military regions. The regular Armed Forces consist of 12,200 people. Ground Forces – 7,500 servicemen, 2 motorized infantry brigades of a training regiment, a separate jaeger regiment, an engineering battalion, an artillery battalion, a peacekeeping company. In reserve – 10 regiments, 36 battalions, 130 territorial defense companies, 2 squadrons of army aviation, or St. 330 thousand people, incl. the first stage – 28 thousand, the second – 308 thousand people. The Lithuanian Land Forces are armed with more than 70 armored personnel carriers (50 – М113А1, 10 – BTR-60 and more 10 – M42), 10 BRDM-2, 10 MT-LB, approx. 200 RPG-7 grenade launchers, St. 40 120-mm mortars, more than 110 Karl Gustav coastal defense launchers. In the Air Force – 800 people. personnel, 8 training aircraft L-39 (light attack aircraft), 2 – L-410, 6 – An-24, 3 – An-26, 4 Mi-2 helicopters, 6 – Mi-8 and Mi-17. The Navy (about 600 people) consists of 2 small anti-submarine ships, 3 patrol boats, 2 minesweepers, a command ship and a training ship at the same time. Coast Guard – 550 people. and 4 patrol boats. ) consist of 2 small anti-submarine ships, 3 patrol boats, 2 minesweepers, a headquarters ship and a training ship at the same time. Coast Guard – 550 people. and 4 patrol boats. ) consist of 2 small anti-submarine ships, 3 patrol boats, 2 minesweepers, a headquarters ship and a training ship at the same time. Coast Guard – 550 people. and 4 patrol boats.
Lithuania has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established on October 9, 1991).