State structure and political system of Luxembourg
Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy. The country has a Constitution of 1868 (additions and corrections are made to it from time to time). Administratively, the country is divided into three districts: Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg. The largest cities (1999): Luxembourg, Esch zur Alzette (24.9 thousand people), Dudelange (17.1 thousand people). Check computerminus for political system of Luxembourg.
The head of state, the legitimate heir P. Gulloym, ascended the throne on October 7, 2000. Elections of 60 deputies to the unicameral parliament (chamber of deputies) take place by direct popular vote (for a period of 5 years, the last took place on June 13, 1999). There is also a Council of State (21 members) that provides recommendations to the Chamber of Deputies. This body is completed by the head of state, but on the recommendation of the prime minister.
In the last elections, representatives of 6 parties entered the parliament: the Christian Social Party (CSV) – 29.79%, the Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party (LSAP) – 23.75%, the Democratic Party (DP) – 21.58%, the Acting Committee of Democracy and Justice (ADR) – 10.36%, the Green Party (GP) – 9.09%, the Marxist and Reform Communist Party (LEFT) – 3.77%.
The prime minister of the government is usually a representative of the party that received the largest number of votes. He is appointed by the monarch, but is responsible to parliament. Since January 1995, Prime Minister of Luxembourg J.-C. Juncker.
Among the leading public and business organizations that influence the formation of the country’s domestic and foreign policy are the Federation of Industrialists, the Association of Bankers (ABBL), the Central Trade Unions (OGBL), etc.
The domestic policy of the country since the 1990s. is based on the implementation of the concept of the so-called. Luxembourgish model. It is based on well-defined postulates: socio-political stability, economic prosperity, “initiative energy that overcomes small sizes.” To achieve these principles, it is assumed that the state will be actively involved in economic processes and ensure automatic indexation of wages in accordance with inflation rates. It is believed that under conditions of relatively low price growth (1.5-2.5%), the implementation of such a postulate is quite possible.
At the same time, in the business circles of the country, they believe that the principles of automatic wage indexation pose a serious threat to the competitiveness of the national economy, wages should increase only as a result of an increase in labor productivity. But “pragmatists” from the coalition government believe that the implementation of such a policy creates strong elements of socio-political stability in the country. It is no coincidence that there have been virtually no strikes of any note in Luxembourg for the last decade.
Foreign policy is also aimed at implementing one of the postulates of the Luxembourg model. Luxembourg believes that it is entitled to greater representation in all EU bodies, despite its modest size. First of all, because this country was one of the initiators of the creation of the association. In addition, for a long time (since 1965) it has been one of the three main centers of administration of the EU. In the capital of Liechtenstein, some of the most important EU bodies are located (the total number of staff of which is 7.6 thousand people). Here are: the General Secretariat of the European Parliament, Eurostat, the European Court, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, etc. Thus, the country gets the opportunity to have a greater influence on strategic decision-making.
The armed forces include the army and the police. The total number of men capable of military service is 93.4 thousand people, the annual conscription is 2.6 thousand people. (2002). Military spending $147.8 million, or 0.7% of GDP (2002).
Science and culture of Luxembourg
Luxembourg has a three-stage school system (kindergarten, primary school, secondary school). In February 2002 the university was established. Students study in the specialties: economics, law, sociology, physics, chemistry and language training. Residents of Luxembourg acquire academic education abroad (mainly in Belgium, France, Germany, Austria and the UK), where approx. 3.2 thousand people (2002). Education costs 11.3% of the state budget, second only to social spending.
In 1995 Luxembourg was declared the European Capital of Culture. In December 1994, UNESCO classified the old part of Luxembourg as a cultural heritage of mankind. Along with public funding for culture, there are many private and institutional sponsors of education and culture. The concerts at the Burglinster Castle, the Echternach Music Festival and the Esch and Wiltz Theater Week gained worldwide fame. There are 4 theaters in Luxembourg City, as well as the world famous Luxembourg Philharmonic Orchestra.
The rich cultural traditions of the people are preserved in Luxembourg. Each large community has its own orchestra, the cultural union takes care of folk customs. In the field of art and literature, prizes are awarded, which contributes to the influx of young talents into literature and art. The most famous contemporary artist in Luxembourg is considered to be the artist and photographer Edward Steichen.