Moldova is a sovereign and independent, indivisible, democratic, legal state with a republican parliamentary form of government. Moldova has actually become a parliamentary republic since 2000, early parliamentary elections in accordance with this amendment to the Constitution were held on February 25, 2001. The 1994 Constitution is in force. Check computerminus for political system of Moldova.
Until 1998, the territory of Moldova was divided into 40 districts, according to the 1998 reform – into 10 counties and the Autonomous Territorial Unit (ATO) Gagauzia. In 2002, a new law on the administrative-territorial structure was adopted, which passed the examination of the Council of Europe. Moldova returned to the regional division of the territory that existed before 1998: into 32 districts, 60 cities, 912 villages, ATU Gagauzia with 32 settlements (there are 147 settlements in the unrecognized PMR). The largest cities are Chisinau, Beltsy, Bendery, Comrat, Tiraspol.
The head of state is the president; on April 4, 2001, V. Voronin was elected to this post. The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral parliament. Chairman of the Parliament – Evgenia Ostapchuk. The supreme body of executive power is the government, the prime minister is V. Tarlev.
The President is elected by the Parliament for 4 years by secret ballot of 3/5 votes of the elected deputies and for no more than 2 consecutive terms. Parliament is elected on the basis of popular elections according to a mixed majority-proportional system – 51 deputies from party lists and 50 deputies from single-mandate constituencies. The term of office of MPs is 4 years. The president nominates the prime minister and, in accordance with a vote of confidence in parliament, appoints the head of government.
In 1991-2003, three presidents were elected: M. Snegur (reign term 1991-96), P. Luchinsky (December 1996 – February 2001), V. Voronin (since February 2001). Heads of government under Snegur – A. Sangeli, I. Chubuk, under Luchinsky – I. Chubuk, I. Sturza, D. Bragish.
According to the law on local self-government (2003), local government bodies are local councils and mayors. District local councils (first level), village, communal, city councils (second level) are popularly elected, the chairman of the district is elected by district councilors. Local control is carried out by the territorial bureaus of the State Chancellery. The head of the ATU of Gagauzia is a Bashkan. On May 25, 2003, elections were held (3rd campaign after 1995, 1998) for new local authorities in 32 districts of M. 11,935 councilors and 898 mayors were elected. The Party of Communists received 48.03%, i.e. 367 seats, in councils and more than 50% of mayors. Bloc “Social Liberal Alliance” – Moldova Noastra – 21.03% (189 mandates), PPCD – 9.53, Democratic Party – 6.98, Bloc “SDP-SLP” – 3.69, Democratic Agrarian Party -2.035, independent candidates – 5.32%.
Moldova has a multi-party system. 26 political parties and socio-political movements are officially registered. The largest and most influential are the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM – the ruling party since 2001), party leader – V. Voronin, Christian Democratic People’s Party, leader J. Rosca, Democratic Party, leader D. Diacov, Party of Revival and Accord, leader M. Snegur, the Liberal Party, the Party of Social and Economic Justice, the Social Liberal Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Socio-Political Movement “Equality of Rights”, the Party of Socialists, etc. As a result of early parliamentary elections (February 2001), there are three factions in parliament – the PCRM faction (71 seats out of 101), its leader V. Stepaniuc, and two factions from right-wing opposition parties – the Social Democratic Alliance (19 seats),
Leading business organizations: Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Union of Industrialists, Business Center, Timpul Business Club.
A number of public organizations have been created: the Confederation of Trade Unions, the Confederation of Free Trade Unions “Solidarity”, the National Confederation of Employment, which includes independent, professional organizations in various fields of activity. Elements of civil society: the practice of the annual signing of a collective agreement between trade unions and the authorities, as well as a constant dialogue between the president and representatives of civil society of all social strata to achieve agreement in society.
Since 2001, domestic policy has been determined by the program guidelines of the new government. The main task is to consistently pursue a policy taking into account the pre-election promises of the communists to “revive the country, raise the economy”, follow the strategy of eliminating erroneous decisions in the past, achieving sustainable economic growth and overcoming poverty in the economic sphere, achieving political stability and civil harmony in political life, settlement of the Transnistrian conflict, the withdrawal of Russian troops stationed on the territory of Transnistria since the military conflict, the unification of the country.
The foreign policy of Moldova is determined by the national interests of the country. According to the Constitution, Moldova observes “permanent neutrality”. Foreign policy goals: strengthening state sovereignty and territorial integrity, increasing the authority of Moldova in the international arena, developing diplomatic relations and mutually beneficial ties with all countries of the world. Particular attention is paid to cooperation with the strategic partner of the Russian Federation and with neighboring countries – Ukraine and Romania. The long-term strategic goal is integration into European structures, membership in the EU.
According to the Constitution of Moldova – a neutral state, does not participate in any military blocs, military-political formations. The total number of the national army is 8.5 thousand people. The armed forces include motorized rifle, artillery units, air defense, aviation, combat and logistics support units. In service are 209 transport aircraft, 150 mortars, 6 helicopters, 5 transport aircraft, 6 MiGs. The age of military equipment is on average 10-15 years.
The Republic of Moldova has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established on April 6, 1992). On May 13, 2002, the basic political Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova came into force.