Romania is a legal, democratic, social, unified, indivisible state with a republican form of government. The 1991 Constitution is in force, which was amended in 2003. Administratively, the country is divided into 41 counties. The capital is separated into an independent administrative unit. In 2001, the largest cities: Bucharest, Constanta (348.3 thousand people), Iasi (344.3 thousand people), Timisoara (334.0 thousand people), Cluj-Napoca (328 thousand people). ), Brasov and Galati (324 thousand people each), Craiova (303 thousand). Check computerminus for political system of Romania.
The public administration system is based on the principle of balance between the legislative, executive and judicial powers, political pluralism, observance of civil rights and freedoms. The supreme body of legislative power is the parliament, which consists of the upper chamber of the Senate (143 members) and the lower chamber of deputies (340 seats). The supreme body of executive power is the government, headed by the prime minister, whose candidacy is proposed by the president and approved by the parliament. The head of state is the president, who, for the duration of his mandate, cannot be a member of any party. The President can be elected for two terms.
Higher and local authorities are formed on the basis of the 1992 election law. Elections take place every four years by universal (from 18 years of age), direct and secret suffrage. The formation of the parliament goes according to party lists in one round. A 5% barrier has been set for parties and political associations, 8% for electoral blocs. Presidential elections can be held in two rounds if none of the candidates receives more than 50% of the votes. Ion Iliescu became the first president of post-communist Romania. Re-elected in November 2000, Iliescu began the process of democratization of public life, the market transformation of the national economy, and a course was set for the accelerated integration of Romania into the EU and NATO. Since 1991, Iliescu led the Party of Social Democracy, which, after merging with the Socialist Party in 2001, became known as the Social Democratic Party (PSD), whose chairman since 2000 has been Adrian Năstase. The SDP is a member of the International Socialist International.
The public administration of administrative-territorial units operates on the principles of autonomy and decentralization of administration. In towns and rural communes, councils and heads of grass-roots units, the mayors, are elected. At the county level, councils; heads of districts – prefects are appointed by the government. The prefect is the representative of the government at the local level, is responsible for the activities of the ministries and other central governments in the counties, has the right to suspend or cancel the decisions of the county council and local governments.
The constitution considers political pluralism as a condition and guarantee of democracy. In November 2000, 43 parties participated in the parliamentary elections, of which only five overcame the electoral barrier, incl. SDP, “Greater Romania”, National Liberal, Democratic, Democratic Union of Hungarians.
Among the organizations of business circles, a prominent role is played by the Confederation of Employers of Industry of Romania, the National Council of Employers with Private Capital, the Union of Chambers of Commerce and Industry established by Romania with certain foreign countries, Associations of Exporters and Importers, Agricultural Producers, etc. A significant place in public life was occupied by professional associations of workers (the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions “Fretsia”, the cartel of independent trade unions “Alfa”, the National Bloc of Trade Unions, the Federation of Independent Trade Unions “Solidarity-90”).
Domestic policy is based on the constitutional principles of equal rights and freedoms of citizens, regardless of their nationality, religion, political affiliation. The Constitution guarantees to national minorities the preservation and development of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious characteristics.
In foreign policy, Romania has proclaimed adherence to the principles of good neighborliness and observance of the norms of international law. In January 1995, the Association Agreement between Romania and the EU entered into force, integration with which is scheduled for 2007.
In con. In 2002, negotiations began on Romania’s accession to NATO, which required the reorganization of the Armed Forces, the modernization of the technical equipment of the army. The task of transition to a professional army capable of integrating into NATO has been set. By 2001, Romania had already reduced the size of the Armed Forces by almost 2/3 compared to 1989. Military appropriations were doubled, amounting to 2.4% of GDP in 2002. In 2002 the pace of military reform was accelerated.
Diplomatic relations between Romania and the USSR were established on June 9, 1934.