Party system. Political parties in Russia have a decisive influence on the formation and implementation of the country’s domestic and foreign policy. This is due to several reasons: the relative weakness of the political parties themselves, the limited powers of representative bodies of power, and the lack of an appropriate tradition in the political culture of Russian society. The law “On Political Parties” (2001) establishes certain requirements for the quantitative composition of a political party: it must consist of at least 10,000 members and have regional branches of more than 100 members in more than half of the subjects of the Federation. The law only allows individual membership. The creation of regional parties is not allowed. It is also forbidden to create parties on the grounds of professional, racial, national or religious affiliation. Parties should be built only on the territorial principle. By law, one of the main functions of a political party is participation in elections. A party that has not taken part in elections for 5 years is subject to liquidation.
In the 1990s In Russia, a relatively stable party system has developed, represented by the largest parties that have a stable representation in the State Duma. Leading parties include: Communist Party of the Russian Federation. Check computerminus for political system of Russia.
(KPRF) – actually resumed its activities in the country since 1993; stands for the gradual return of the country to the socialist path of development and the strengthening of the public sector in the economy; is popular with layers that have not adapted to market conditions; “Union of Right Forces” – founded in 2000 on the basis of the merger of several parties and public associations of a radical reformist persuasion, led by the party “Democratic Choice of Russia”, founded in 1993; stands for the continuation of radical market reforms in Russia, the strengthening and development of individual freedoms; is popular among population groups that have achieved personal success in the course of reforms; Yabloko is a social-liberal party founded in 1993; criticizes the course of reforms carried out in the 1990s, at the beginning. 21st century stands up for carrying out socially oriented transformations; expresses the interests of part of the middle class of large cities; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) – founded in 1991; the party, which actively exploits nationalist and national protest ideas, expresses the sentiments of a certain part of small and medium-sized provincial businesses.
In Russia, an institution called the “party of power” has also been developed. This name is understood as political associations of the party type, created by the executive branch for the successful implementation of its decisions through parliament. The first such association was the movement “Our Home is Russia” (NDR), which existed from 1995 to 2000. Then it was replaced by the interregional movement “Unity”, founded in 1999. In 2001, on the basis of the association “Unity” with other pro-presidential political groups, the party “ United Russia”. “Parties in power” usually adhere to a centrist political orientation and express the interests of big business and federal officials. After the elections held in December 2003, the party system began to change. According to their results, votes and deputy mandates in the federal district were distributed as follows: United Russia – 37.57%, 120 mandates; Communist Party of the Russian Federation – 12.61%, 40 mandates; LDPR – 11.45%, 36 mandates; bloc “Motherland” – 9.02%, 29 mandates. Yabloko (4.3%), SPS (3.97%) did not overcome the 5% barrier.
Various intersectoral, sectoral, and regional business organizations operate in Russia. The most influential of them are: The Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (RSPP) – established in 1991. In 2002, it united about 320 thousand representatives of industrial, financial, commercial and entrepreneurial associations, enterprises and organizations that provide about 80% of Russia’s GDP. After the leading Russian corporations in the field of oil and gas production, non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy, and mechanical engineering joined the RSPP in 2000–01, he significantly increased his influence on the country’s socio-economic policy;
The Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI) of the Russian Federation in its modern form was established in 1991 (CCIs existed both in pre-revolutionary Russia and in the Soviet era). Unites 20 thousand enterprises and public organizations. The structure of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation includes 156 territorial chambers of commerce and industry, about 100 associations of entrepreneurs at the federal level. Represents the interests of all layers and areas of business.
The most massive public organization is the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia (FNPR), established in 1990. The FNPR unites 48 all-Russian, interregional trade unions (including 5 trade unions cooperating with the FNPR on the basis of contracts and agreements) and 78 territorial trade union associations (2002). According to the FNPR, it has over 38 million members and 300,000 primary organizations. FNPR closely cooperates with authorities and employers. Often criticized by opponents for insufficient, in their opinion, work to protect the interests of employees, for low activity directly at enterprises. Other trade unions in Russia that are not members of the FNPR are organizationally weak and do not have a noticeable impact on public life.
Numerous public associations and civil initiatives operate in the Russian Federation, among which the most active are human rights organizations (Memorial, the Society of Soldiers’ Mothers, the Moscow Helsinki Group, etc.), consumer protection societies, and environmental organizations. After the Civil Forum was held in 2001 with the participation of various public associations, disagreements were clearly identified among them on the question of the advisability of cooperation with state authorities. Some public associations and civil initiatives advocated the development of interaction with the state, others, following the tradition that developed back in the Soviet era, preferred to adhere to the line of opposing government institutions, citing the fact that otherwise there is a risk of being under state control.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (RF Armed Forces) numbered 1.2 million people at the beginning of 2002. Until 2004, the number of servicemen should be reduced to 1 million. The Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces is the President of the Russian Federation. The federal executive body in charge of managing the Armed Forces is the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, and the central body of military and operational control is the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces.
The structure of the Armed Forces includes 3 types of armed forces: Ground Forces, Air Force, Navy, 2 types of troops – Strategic Missile Forces and Space Forces. In operational terms, they have 6 military districts (Moscow, Leningrad, North Caucasus, Volga-Ural, Siberian and Far Eastern), as well as the Kaliningrad Special Region, 4 fleets (Baltic, Northern, Pacific, Black Sea). The armed forces of the Russian Federation took an active part in counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya (1994-96, from 1999 to the present). They also participate in peacekeeping operations abroad.
In addition to the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the law, the military organization of the state includes other troops and military formations subordinate to other departments (Border Troops of the Federal Security Service, Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Railway Troops of the Russian Federation, Troops of Federal State Security Bodies, Civil Defense Troops, etc..).