Turkey is a unitary state with a mixed form of government (it combines elements of both a parliamentary and a presidential republic). The 1982 Constitution is in force. Check equzhou for political system of Turkey.
Administratively and territorially, Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (provinces): Adana, Adiyaman, Athens, Agry, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartyn, Batman, Bai-Burt, Bildej, Bildej Beatles, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Van, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gümüşhane, Denizli, Diyarbakır, Düzce, Zonguldak, Içel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Yozgat, Kahramyaman, Karamanyamkar, Karamanyamkar Kırıkkale, Kırklareli, Kırşehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kütahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mush, Nevşehir, Nigde, Horde, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakrya, Samsun, Sivas, Siirtg, Tecok, Tirgot, Sinop, Sinop, Tunjeli, Ushak, Hakkari, Hatay, Çanakkale, Çankırı, лыanlı Urfa, ирırnak, Edirne, Elazı,, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Yalova.
The largest cities (provincial centers) with a population of St. 1 million people: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Bursa, Adana, Konya, Antalya, Antakya, Gaziantep, лыanlı Urfa, Samsun.
The legislative function in Turkey belongs to the unicameral parliament (Mejlis) – the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNA), which includes 550 deputies.
Executive power is exercised by the President and the Council of Ministers. The head of state is the President of the Republic. According to the Constitution, he personifies the unity and indivisibility of the country and nation. The President is endowed with broad powers in the field of executive, legislative and judicial power.
Traditionally, the president appoints the leader of the party that won the election as prime minister, and the persons recommended by the latter as ministers. The Turkish Constitution does not grant the Council of Ministers the right to independently issue regulations. However, the limitedness of his rights is only apparent, since the Council of Ministers initiates the issuance of many decrees on the most important issues of domestic and foreign policy, which are signed by the president and the relevant ministers.
Suffrage in Turkey is regulated by the current Constitution of 1982, as well as by the Electoral Law of June 10, 1983. The electoral system includes elements of both majoritarian and proportional voting systems. The combination of these elements is chosen in such a way as to create the greatest advantages for large political parties, which should contribute to the formation of one-party governments, thereby ensuring the stability of the Turkish political system. Under the Constitution of 1982, elections are free, direct, equal, secret, one-stage, universal, with open counting and registration of votes and are held under judicial supervision and direction. Turkish citizens who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and participate in popular referendums. Soldiers and non-commissioned officers of active service, military cadets, arrested and convicted persons held in places of detention cannot vote in general elections. For deputies, a higher age limit is provided for than for voters – 30 years.
Elections to the VNST are held once every 5 years. If parliamentary seats become vacant, by-elections may be held. Elections in Turkey are held under the general direction and control of the High Electoral Commission. On all election issues, on complaints and protests, the decisions of the High Electoral Commission are final and not subject to appeal.
The Electoral Law of 1983 introduced two additional barriers to the electoral system. The first of these, the general barrier, is that a political party that does not win 10% of all valid votes throughout the country in an election does not receive deputy mandates (even if it wins in one or more constituencies). The second barrier operates within each constituency. All valid votes cast in the given constituency during the elections are divided by the number of deputy mandates established for this constituency, the resulting number becomes a barrier.
Among the political figures of Turkey, who have been in the post of prime minister for a long time, it is worth mentioning I. Inenya, S. Demirel, A. Menderes, B. Ecevit, T. Ozal. At the same time, I.Inenu, T.Ozal and S.Demirel subsequently held the post of president of the republic.
As a result of the last early parliamentary elections, held in November 2002, the parties that occupied leading positions after the re-establishment of the multi-party system in 1983 suffered a complete defeat. These include the Fatherland Party, the True Path Party, as well as two parties that were part of the ruling coalition: the Nationalist Movement Party and the Democratic Left Party. Moderate Islamists came to the fore in the person of the Justice and Development Party, headed by R.T. Erdogan.
The President of the Republic is elected by 2/3 of the votes of the full composition of the members of the VNST by secret ballot. The President may also be elected from outside the deputies; this requires a written proposal of 1/5 of the deputy corps. A presidential candidate must be at least 40 years old, have a higher education and be eligible to be elected to parliament. The constitution prescribes that the president must be non-partisan and neutral in relation to the party composition of parliament.
Presidential elections begin 30 days before the expiration of his term of office or 10 days after the presidential post is vacated and ends within 30 days from the date of the start of the elections. If, during the first two rounds of voting, it is not possible to secure a majority of 2/3 of the total membership, a third ballot is held, and the candidate who receives an absolute majority of votes in the third round of voting is considered elected to the presidency. If such a majority cannot be reached, a fourth round is called; if in this round the presidential candidate does not gain an absolute majority of votes, then in this case the “intractable” parliament is dissolved and new elections to the GRST are held without delay.
Among the influential public organizations are Turkish trade unions: the Confederation of Trade Unions of Turkish Workers, the Confederation of Revolutionary Workers’ Trade Unions of Turkey, the Confederation of Fair Workers’ Trade Unions, the Confederation of Trade Unions of Turkish Entrepreneurs, as well as the Union of Turkish Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, the Union of Independent Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, the Union of Turkish Chambers of Industry and Commerce.
The main directions of the country’s foreign policy are determined by the traditionally close partnership with the United States, the course towards joining the EU. In part, they are balanced by Turkey’s attempts to strengthen its regional foreign policy through the development of ties with the states of Central Asia, the Transcaucasus and the Russian Federation, Israel, and with Muslim countries.
The main directions of domestic policy are currently dictated by the country’s desire to achieve compliance with the political group of the Copenhagen criteria, which is a necessary precondition for accession to the EU. Therefore, in Turkey, there is currently a further development of the democratic process, in particular, its directions related to the observance of human rights, national minorities, and the reduction of the role of the army in resolving political crises in the country.
The structure of the Turkish Armed Forces includes the Ground Forces (500 thousand people), the Air Force (60 thousand people), and the Naval Forces (64 thousand people). 100 thousand people serve in the ranks of the Turkish National Gendarmerie. Military spending in 2002 exceeded $8 billion, or 4.5% of GDP.