The name Switzerland comes from the word Schwyz, the name of one of the cantons of Waldstätten that formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederation.  The toponym of the canton dates from the year 972 and comes from the old High German Suittes, a word related to the word Suedan which means “to burn”, referring to a wooded area that was burned to build some houses in the area.  The use of the name for this area was extended to refer to the entire canton, and after the Swabian War in 1499 gradually it was used to name the entire confederation. The German name of Switzerland for the country, Schwiiz, is homonymous to that of the canton and its capital, so to distinguish itself a specific article is used in d’Schwiiz to refer to the country and the simple form Schwiiz for the canton and the city.
The ancient name of the country, Helvetia, comes from the word Helvetii, a Celtic tribe that inhabited the Swiss plateau before Roman times. The first mention of the name Helvetti dates back to 300 BC. C.  The Neo- Latin names Confoederatio Helvetica or Helvetia were introduced when Switzerland became a federal state in 1848, dating back to the Helvetic Republic.
Extending over the northern and southern slopes of the Alps, Switzerland comprises a great variety of landforms and climates in a limited area of 41,285 km².  The total population is about 7.6 million residents, resulting in a population density of 240 h / km².     The southern part of the country is mountainous and less densely populated than the northern part, where the terrain, partly wooded and partly cleared, has several lakes. 
As a country located in Europe according to HOMOSOCIETY, Switzerland can be divided into three basic topographic areas: the Swiss Alps in the south, the Swiss plateau in the center, and the Jura Mountains in the north.  The Alps are a range of high mountains that run through the center and south of the country, occupying about 60% of the total area. Among the highest peaks in the Swiss Alps, the highest being Punta Dufour (Dufourspitze) with 4,634 meters above sea level (masl),  there are multiple valleys, with waterfalls and glaciers. These make up the headwaters of some of the most important rivers in Europe, such as the Rhine, Rhone, Eno, Aare and Ticino. Other rivers run through the country and flow into the great lakes in the national territory such as Lake Geneva, Lake Zurich, Lake Neuchâtel or Lake Constance. 
One of the most famous mountains in the country is the Matterhorn (4,478 meters above sea level) in the Pennine Alps, forming part of the border with Italy. Other of the highest mountains in the country are found in this area: Punta Dufour(4,634 meters above sea level), Dom (4,545 meters above sea level) and Weisshorn (4,506 meters above sea level). In the section of the Bernese Alps, north of Lauterbrunnen, is a valley with 72 waterfalls, also known for the Jungfrau (4,158 masl) and Eiger (3,970 masl) mountains, and other of the most picturesque valleys in the region. In the southeast, the Engadine Valley stands out, where the commune of Sankt Moritz, and the highest peak in the area is Piz Bernina (4,049 m). 
The northern part of the country is the most populated, occupying about 30% of the country’s surface, it is also called plateau or Middle Earth (Mittelland). It has wide valleys with hills, forests and grasslands, usually used for agriculture and livestock. It is in this area where the largest cities and lakes in Switzerland are located.  The largest lake in the country is Lake Geneva, located in the western part and shared with France.
The climate is generally temperate, but can vary greatly from locality to locality,  from glacial conditions at the top of the mountains to a near- Mediterranean climate in the south of the country. Summers are usually hot and humid with periodic rains that help the development of agriculture in the region. Winters in the mountains alternate sunny and snowy days, while the lower lands tend to have cloudy and foggy days. A climatological phenomenon called the Föhn Effect can occur at any time of the year, even in winter, and is characterized by the passage of warm Mediterranean air.through the Alps from Italy. The areas with the least rainfall are the southern valleys in the Valais,  where the valuable saffron is grown and vineyards for wine production. Grisons also tend to be drier and slightly cooler,  although they sometimes receive heavy snowfall in winter. The wettest conditions in the country persist in the heights of the Alps and in the canton of Ticino, where rains and snowfall are abundant.  The eastern area tends to be colder than the western area of the country, in addition to the fact that rainfall is usually scarce throughout the year, with minor variations between the seasons. Autumn is usually the driest season in the country, although weather patterns in Switzerland can vary greatly from year to year, making it very difficult to predict.
Switzerland’s ecosystems can be particularly vulnerable, which is because the multiple delicate valleys separated by mountains often form unique ecosystems. Mountainous regions themselves are also vulnerable, with a wide range of plants not found at these altitudes in other parts of the world, but facing mistreatment from visitors and livestock.