The federal constitution of 1848 is the legal foundation of the modern federal state and the second oldest constitution still in force in the world.  A new version of the constitution was adopted in 1999, but did not introduce notable changes in the federal structure. It defines the basic rights and obligations of citizens, their active participation in politics, divides power between the confederation and the cantons, and defines the federal authorities and jurisdictions. There are three main bodies of government at the federal level:  the bicameral parliament (legislative branch), the Federal Council (executive branch), and the Swiss Federal Supreme Court. o Federal Supreme Court (judicial power). The function of the Federal Supreme Court is to hear appeals against the cantonal or federal courts. The judges or magistrates are elected by the Federal Assembly for a period of six years.
The Swiss Parliament is made up of two chambers: the Council of States, which has 46 representatives (two from each canton and one from each semi-canton), who are elected by each canton under its own system; and the National Council, which consists of 200 members elected under a proportional representation system, depending on the population of each canton. The members of the two chambers are elected every four years. When both houses are in joint session, they are known as the Federal Assembly. Through referendums, citizens can reject or accept any law coming from parliament, and through initiatives introduce new points to the federal constitution, making Switzerland a direct democracy. 
The Federal Council constitutes the federal Government, directs the Federal Administration and acts as head of state. It is made up of seven members elected for a four-year term by the Federal Assembly, which also oversees the actions of the council. The president of the Confederation is chosen by the assembly from among the seven members of the council, traditionally in rotation and only for a period of one year; the president directs the government and assumes his representative functions. However, the president is a primus inter pares with no additional powers, and remains at the head of his department during his administration. 
Since 1959, the Swiss federal government has been made up of a coalition of the four main political parties, each having a number of seats that hardly reflects its popularity with voters and the number of representatives in parliament. From 1959 to 2003, the classic distribution of 2 CVP / PDC, 2 SPS / PSS, 2 FDP / PRD and 1 SVP / UDC was known as the “magic formula” (Zauberformel). In the 2007 elections, the seven seats of the Federal Council were distributed as follows:
2 Social Democrats (SPS / PSS)
2 Liberal Democrats (FDP / PRD)
2 Swiss People’s Party (SVP / UDC)
1 Christian Democrats (CVP / PDC).
Swiss citizens are the subject of three legal jurisdictions: the commune, the canton, and the confederation. The federal constitution of 1848 defines a system of direct democracy (sometimes called semi-direct or direct representative democracybecause it has a greater similarity to institutions of a parliamentary democracy). The instruments of Swiss direct democracy at the federal level, known as civil rights (Volksrechte or droits civiques), include the right to draw up a “constitutional initiative” and a referendum, both of which can influence the decisions of parliament. 
By means of a referendum, a group of citizens can challenge a law that has been approved by parliament if it can get more than 50,000 signatures that are against the law within a period of 100 days. If it succeeds, a national vote is held where it is decided by a simple majority whether the law is rejected or not. Eight united cantons can also hold a referendum for the approval of a federal law. 
Similarly, the “constitutional initiative” allows citizens to request that a constitutional amendment be put to the vote if they manage to get 100,000 signatures supporting the amendment within 18 months. Parliament can supplement the proposed amendment with a counterproposal, where voters will have to indicate their preference on the ballot, in case both proposals are accepted. Constitutional amendments, whether of popular or parliamentary initiative, must be accepted by a double majority of the national vote and the cantonal vote.   
Its population varies between 15,000 residents of the canton of Appenzell Inner Rhodes and the 1.2 million residents of the canton of Zurich, while its area varies between 37 km² of Basel-City and 7,100 km² of Grisons. The cantons comprise a total of 2,889 municipalities. Within Switzerland there are two enclaves: Büsingen belonging to Germany and Campione d’Italia belonging to Italy.
On May 11, 1919, in a referendum organized in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg, more than 80% of the population voted in favor of the state joining the Swiss Confederation. However, opposition from the Austrian government, the Allies, the Swiss Liberals, the Swiss-Italians, and the Romands, prevented the annexation of the state.
Foreign relations and international institutions
As a country located in Europe according to MATHGENERAL, Switzerland avoids all alliances that may involve military, political or economic action and has been neutral since its expansion in 1515.  It was not until 2002 that Switzerland became a full member of the UN,  but it was the first state to join the organization after a referendum. Switzerland maintains diplomatic relations with almost all nations and has historically acted as an intermediary for other states.  Switzerland is not a member of the European Union ; the Swiss population has rejected membership since the early 1990s. 
A large number of international institutions are based in Switzerland, due in part to its policy of neutrality. The Red Cross was founded in 1863, and has its center of operations in the country. Despite the fact that Switzerland is one of the countries that most recently joined the UN, Geneva is the second largest headquarters of the organization, only after the one located in New York. Apart from the UN headquarters, Geneva is also the headquarters of several UN dependent organizations, such as the WHO and the ITU, in addition to 200 other international organizations.  Furthermore, many sports federations and organizations have their headquarters in the country, such as the International Olympic Committee in Lausanne, the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) in Les Avants, the International Association Football Federation (FIFA) in Zurich and the European Union of Football Associations (UEFA) in Nyon.
The Swiss Armed Forces are made up of the Swiss Army and Air Force. Since Switzerland is a landlocked country, it does not have a navy, but in the neighboring lakes the army uses armed boats. The peculiarity of the Swiss Army is the militiasystem. Professional soldiers make up only 5% of military personnel. The rest are enlisted citizens between the ages of 20 and 34. Swiss citizens are prohibited from serving in foreign troops, with the exception of the Swiss Guard at the Vatican.
The structure of the Swiss military stipulates that soldiers must keep their own equipment at home, including the famous Swiss army knife and their personal weapons. Some organizations and political parties find this practice controversial and dangerous. At the age of 19, military service it is mandatory for all male citizens; women can serve voluntarily. About two-thirds of young Swiss are declared fit for service; while those who are not must pay a special tax instead of doing it. Annually, about 20,000 people are trained for combat in a course of 18 to 21 weeks. The reform “Army XXI” was adopted by popular vote in 2009, and replaced the old model “Army 95”, reducing the number of troops from 400,000 to 200,000. Of these, 120,000 are active soldiers and 80,000 reservists.
In total, only three general mobilizations have been declared to ensure the integrity and neutrality of Switzerland. The first on the occasion of the Franco-Prussian War between 1870 and 1871. The second was decided in response to the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. The third mobilization took place in September 1939 in response to the German invasion of Poland, and Henri Guisan was elected General-in-Chief.
Due to its neutrality, the army cannot take part in armed conflicts in other countries, but it has participated in various peacekeeping missions around the world. Since 2000, the defense department has also used the Onyx intelligence system to monitor satellite communications. After the end of the Cold War there have been numerous attempts to reduce military activity and even disband the army. One of the most important referendums on this issue took place on November 26, 1959 and, although it was not approved, it showed that a high percentage of the Swiss population is in favor of such initiatives.