Since Christianity 988 was introduced in the prince state of Kievrus, cultural relations increased especially with the Byzantine Empire. Sermons, saints’ legends and historical works were translated into Kyrkoslavian, a book language understood by the various tribes of Kiev. No marked division into dialects had yet begun. Therefore, the oldest Ukrainian literature coincided with the Russian one. The Tatars attack broke this unit. Large parts of Ukrainian territories came under Lithuanian and Polish domination. It opened the way for Western influence and affected the specificity of the Ukrainian language. To counteract Polish and Catholic impressions, an Orthodox academy was founded in Kiev in 1632. After Moscow took power over the central parts of Ukraine, it cooperated with Russian theologians and theorists.
- Countryaah: Population and demographics of Ukraine, including population pyramid, density map, projection, data, and distribution.
Modern Ukrainian literature in the real sense was first started with the first parts of St. Petersburg published in 1798 by Ivan Petrovytj Kotljarevsky’s “Eneïda” (not in Swedish translation). It is a burlesque style story that traverses Vergili’s “Aeneiden” and depicts the history of Ukraine. The book attracted interest in St. Petersburg and the curiosity of the new province was expressed in collections of “Little Russian” songs and stories. Some Ukrainian writers, e.g. Gogol, wrote in Russian, while others switched between Russian and Ukrainian. The latter belonged to Osnovjanenko, pseudonym of Hryhorij Kvitka. He was the first realistic storyteller but also wrote popular plays. One of them is mentioned as a role model for Gogol’s “Accountant”. Taras Shevchenko became the great romantic national bald and the creator of a Ukrainian national consciousness. In the beginning he wrote romantic ballads. Later, his poetry received a political and socially critical orientation that contributed to a long-standing ban on Siberia. Marko Vovtjok became internationally known for his stories and novels from the countryside. She was familiar with Flaubert, who translated one of her novels. During the latter part of the 19th century, Ukrainian cultural life was dominated by Ivan Franko. In addition to political and literary works, he wrote historical novels and dramas. Ibsen and Bjørnson. While Franko was a typical 19th century realist, Mychajlo Kotsiubynskyj represented the turn of the century modernism (selection available in Swedish translation). A popular poet among the modernists was Lesia Ukraïnka. She wrote, among other things, promo with national sub-opinion. In “Kassandra” (1907,
After the First World War, the Ukrainian territories were divided. While the western Galician parts enjoyed some freedom, the Soviet Ukraine was soon subjected to Stalinization with the deportation of the intellectuals and the suppression of an independent literature that did not follow Moscow’s orders. One poet who accepted the new regime was Pavlo Tytjina, who was awarded the Stalin Age’s highest orders and posts in cultural life. The 1970’s generation came with new signals and tried to unite nationally and Europeanly. Among them were Lina Kostenko and Ivan Dratj. “Ukrainian Horses Across Paris” (1987) is a sample of Swedish from both authors’ authorship.
After independence in 1991, a new generation of writers emerged who wanted to do away with the past. An underground literature had already been established by the end of the 1980’s with authors such as Jurij Andrukhovytj (born 1960), later one of Ukraine’s most well-known cultural figures with a comprehensive production of lyric, novels and essays. Literary historian and philosopher Oksana Zabuzhko (born 1960) created with the novel “Field Studies in Ukrainian Sex” (1996) a modern feminist classic.
With the so-called orange revolution in 2004, the outside world increasingly became the eyes of Ukraine and the conditions in the country. Marina Lewycka, born in Great Britain (born 1946) received an international breakthrough with the humorous novel “A Short Story of Tractors in Ukrainian” (2005), which describes the transition to a capitalist lifestyle that affected the country’s residents in drastically different ways.
Drama and theater
The foundation of the modern theater in Ukraine was laid by the 17th century school drama at the Kiev Academy. Despite Russian opposition to public Ukrainian theater, the drama developed in the 19th century, whose main name was Lesia Ukraïnka (pseudonym of Larysa Kosatj-Kvitka). Not until 1907 could the first permanent Ukrainian-language dramatic theater be established in Kiev; a national scene was created after independence in 1917. Director Les Kurbas gave the avant-garde theater Berezil (1922–33) European format. After 1934, the theater became subordinate to Soviet politics.
Even before the revolution, in Ukraine there was the embryo for a film industry with film studio in Odessa, now a film museum. This resource was reinforced in 1928 with yet another film studio in Kiev, which was later renamed after Aleksandr Dovchenko, the greatest Ukrainian film-maker after poetic films such as “Earth” (1930) and an important source of inspiration for the pioneering film in the country. However, the Ukrainian film industry was never allowed to grow strong, even though it distinguished itself with the so-called poetic film school in the 1960’s, and was strongly linked to the Russian in Moscow during the Soviet Union. Many Ukrainian film workers found it too good to move to Moscow for their jobs. The best known name was the director and actor Sergei Bondartjuk, best known for its monumental “War and Peace” in four parts 1965-67. Another was director Larysa Sjepitko (1938-79), who a few years before his death received his international breakthrough with “Voskhozhdeniye” (1976; English title: “The Ascent”).
The movie “A Source for the Thirsty” (1965) was an impressive debut film, symbolically ambiguous, by Juryj Illenko (1936–2010), who was a photographer for Georgian director Sergei Paradzyanov. The film remained banned for viewing for more than 20 years. Also affected by the censorship was Kira Muratova (1934–2018)) with its subtly socially critical, long-banned “Short Encounters” (1967) and “A Long Farewell” (1971). Illenko returned in 1987 with the “Straw Bells”, a multi-faceted settlement with the co-workers during the Second World War. However, it was Muratova who, after independence, was able to assert herself best with her black humor and well-thought-out imagery in films such as the social satire “The Asthenic Syndrome” (1989), “Try istoryï” (1997), three short films, and the critique of civilization “Melodiya dlya sharmanki ”(2009, English title:“ Melody for a Street Organ ”).
New names in the 1980’s include directors such as Mark Osepjan (born 1937), Roman Balajan (born 1941) and Igor Minajev (born 1954) and in the 1990’s Andrij Doncik (born 1961), Natalia Moruzko (born 1946), Vjatjeslav Kristhofovich and documentary filmmaker Oleksandr Jantjuk. Georgia- born journalist Georgia Gondaze (born 1969, assassinated 2000) was noted for the documentary “The Shadow of War” (1993).
Among the internationally screened films of the 21st century are the artist Igor Podolotjak’s (born 1962) film debut “Las Meninas” (2008) and Sergei Loznitsas (born 1964) “My joy” (2010) and Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy’s “The Tribe” (2014), both of which competed in Cannes.
From the 9th century onwards, in the Kiev kingdom in present Ukraine, the art that forms the starting point for both Ukrainian and Russian art development (compare Russian Federation, Art). This happened initially under strong Byzantine influence. As a result of the union with Lithuania and Poland, during the late Middle Ages, the influences of Western European medieval art became increasingly evident. The icon painting, with one of its centers in the Cave Monastery in Kiev, distanced itself from the Byzantine role models and took an ever stronger impression of Western style development and local folk art.
In the 1600’s, a peculiar portrait tradition arose with features from, among other things. sarmatismen. Many of the artists operating in St. Petersburg during the 18th and 19th centuries were of Ukrainian origin, including Dmitry Levitsky (Ukrainian Dmytro Levytskyj) and Vladimir Borovikovsky (Ukrainian Volodymyr Borovykovsky). National caller Taras Shevchenko also founded a national art tradition. Educated at the Saint Petersburg Academy of Art, he developed a realistic narrative style and an outdoor painting by the mid-19th century, which was passed on by artists such as Ivan Sokolov and Nikolaj Pimonenko (Ukrainian Mykola Pymonenko). Shevchenko also worked as a portrait painter and graphic artist.
Ukraine’s architecture has been affected by the situation as a border country. Through its position of power and proximity to Byzantium, during the 11th century, Kiev developed a distinctive Russian church architecture, with the Sofia Cathedral as a magnificent example. Medieval castles, timber-framed churches and urban dwellings in the neo-Renaissance had role models in Poland and Lithuania. Neo-classicism was taken from Russia with features such as attic houses around farms furthest south. During the first Soviet era, the then capital of Kharkov became a center of modernism with a new monumental square and the New Kharkov district of the tractor factory.
Music and dance
The folk music in Ukraine is closely related to other Slavic folk. An older layer comprises ritual songs performed at Christmas and New Year (koljadka), in spring (vesnjanka) and during harvest (zazjynky).
In the 15th century, a repertoire of historical songs and epics, the duma, arose, which was sung by blind singers, kobzas, and accompanied by vevlira or bandura. The weddings were rich in music and dance, each phase accompanied by ladkannja, complaining monotonous songs with partly improvised text. Widespread are lyrical songs, which in western Ukraine are usually unanimous and in the east multi- voiced, and colomy, short improvised songs with satirical, humorous lyrics.
An older dance repertoire consists of ring dances for common vocals, a younger one of pair dances for instrumental music. The majority of the younger ones are in two-tempo and relatively fast tempo. Common dances are kozatjok, kolomyjka, hopak (see gopak), hutsulka and arkan, all built on a couple of simple rhythmic motifs.
A common type of ensemble is troika music, with violin (screech) or flute (sopilka), chopping board (tsymbaly) and drum. Other instruments are kobza (luta), bandura (a kind of citrus), vevlira, mungi and bagpipe.
During the Soviet era, large folk music ensembles were created, the style of which influenced the performance of folk music at all levels.
With the introduction of Christianity in the late 900’s, Byzantine church music was also introduced. During the 1000’s, a native church music style was developed. In the 16th century, multistory hymns were introduced, and at the 1615 founding of the Kiev Academy, prominent church musicians were trained.
From the end of the 17th century many Ukrainian musicians appeared in Moscow and later also in Saint Petersburg. During the 19th century, Mykola Ovsianyko-Kulykovskyj (1768–1846), who wrote Viennese classical symphonies, appeared, as well as opera composers Semen Hulak-Artemovskyj (1813–73), Petro Nishjynskyi (1832–96) and Petro Sokalskyj (1832–87).
The pianist, composer and folk music researcher Mykola Lysenko (1842–1912) gained great importance for music. by founding a choir and a higher music institute in Kiev. Strongly influenced by Lysenko was Kyrylo Stetsenko (1882–1922), Jakiv Stepovyj (1883–1921), Mykola Leontovytj (1877–1921) and Olexandr Kosjyts (1875–1944), all active in Ukraine until the Revolution.
Among the first generation of composers in Soviet Ukraine were Mychajlo Skorulskyj (1887–1950) and Borys Ljatosjynskyj (1895–1968), the most prominent of the 20th century.
Later composers include Andrij Sjtoharenko (1902–92), Konstiantyn Dankevytj (1905–84), Herman Zjukovsky, as well as the slightly younger Myroslav Skoryk (born 1938), Leonid Hrabovsky (born 1935), Ivan Karabyts (1945–2002).
Since the mid-1900’s, various forms of popular music, rock and jazz have played an increasingly important role in music. In the 1970’s, several musicians began to combine Ukrainian folk music with popular music, such as the folk rock group Kobza, which was followed by, among others, Medikus, Viy and Mandry and artists such as Volodymyr Ivasyuk (1949-79), Sofia Rotaru (born 1947) and in the 2000’s Mariana Sadovska (born 1972).
After Ukraine’s independence in 1991, the Ukrainian pop and rock world developed avalanche. Previously, most of the popular music had been sung in Russian, but increasingly it has since begun to be performed in Ukrainian. The group Vopli Vidopliassova (formed in 1986) mixes experimental punk, hard rock and folk music. Another popular rock band is Okean Elzy (formed in 1994). Kazaky (formed in 2010) plays house and electronica and has had limited success even internationally.
Heavy metal has also become big in Ukraine, not least black metal, with groups such as Hate Forest, Drudkh and Holy Blood.
Ukraine participated in the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time in 2003. Already the following year, the popular singer Ruslana (actually Ruslana Lyzhytjko, born 1973) won the competition with the song “Wild Dances”. The country won for the second time with Jamala (really Susana Djamaladinova, born 1983) and the song “1944”. Other artists who have had success in the competition are comedian Andrij Danylko with drag artist name Verka Serdjutjka (born 1973) and Ani Lorak (born 1978), both of whom came in second place (2007 and 2008, respectively).
Urban development has been the rule in most of Ukraine; solitary farms have mainly been found in the Carpathians, where several shepherds, including the huzuls, preserved old-fashioned and deviant cultural forms. The villages were sparsely populated and consisted of large row villages with up to 3,000 residents – so that they could better defend themselves against the riders in the east. The farms in the north usually consisted of tightly built one-story houses, further south the house bodies were sparse; primarily the warehouses were separated from the others to be protected in the event of fire. The houses were usually of wood and white. Clay-clad houses were found in wooded areas such as the plains around Dnestr, knot carpentry in the Carpathians.
As for the costume, the wide trousers of the Cossacks and the women’s richly embroidered, down-to-visible badges deserve mention. The festive life has been richly developed. In this, a rich treasure of popular poetry was expressed. In popular belief, the fear of witches and sorcerers, vampires and werewolves has been very widespread. The documentation of Ukrainian folk culture began with the poem. A pioneer, Ivan Rudchenko, published in 1869-70 a collection that is still considered one of the most important.
The parts of Ukraine that belonged to other states, mainly Austria-Hungary, were explored mainly before the First World War, mainly through the efforts of the science academies in Lviv and Kraków. During the Stalin epoch, the emphasis on Ukrainian peculiarities was considered politically inappropriate, the collection work continued but little was published. Before 1914, 2,600 folk-poetry texts had been published; Since then both collection and publishing have intensified. Ukraine Academy of Sciences has an institute for public life research in Kiev with a branch in Lviv. In both of these cities, there are also extensive museums focusing on folk life, folk art and crafts.