According to fashionissupreme.com, a year before his death he managed to obtain, with the consent of Rome, for so many years in vain expected, the royal crown: a symbol of the independence and indivisibility of Polish lands. But the greatness of the new state that reached from the sea as far as Moravia and Slovakia and from the Bug to the Elbe, did not rest on an adequate cohesion and internal organization, and, more importantly, the successor of Boleslao, Mieszko II (1025-1034), he did not have, among the numerous neighbors, a single trusted friend. While therefore under the first two Piasti the positive forces of Poland had manifested themselves in full light – in the first place; military strength and expansionary capacity – during the short reign of Mieszko II, inaugurated with the crowning, the twofold danger that even in the following centuries would often threaten the integrity of Poland clearly appeared: internal discord and an aggressive coalition of neighboring powers. Thus it was that Mieszko II, not lacking in capacity or energy, after the first successes obtained in his reckless offensive against Conrad II, lost his father’s territorial conquests in a few years, when Bohemians, Russians and his own allied themselves against him. brothers. In 1033, at the Merseburg convention, he had to renounce the royal crown and undertake to pay a tribute. after the first successes obtained in his reckless offensive against Conrad II, he lost his father’s territorial conquests in a few years, when Boemi, Russi and his own brothers allied themselves against him. In 1033, at the Merseburg convention, he had to renounce the royal crown and undertake to pay a tribute. after the first successes obtained in his reckless offensive against Conrad II, he lost his father’s territorial conquests in a few years, when Boemi, Russi and his own brothers allied themselves against him. In 1033, at the Merseburg convention, he had to renounce the royal crown and undertake to pay a tribute.
After his death, poorly compressed regional separatisms broke out, paganism not yet completely tamed reasserted itself with violence, and the western part of the state was easy prey for the Bohemian prince Břetislav who occupied Silesia. Mieszko II’s son, Casimir the Renewer (1038-1098), had to proceed slowly, with the help of Conrad II and the Russian prince Jaroslav, to the religious reorganization and political reconstruction of Poland. He was unable to regain Lusatia and was content with formal sovereignty over Pomerania; instead he regained Silesia. Boleslao the Bold (1058-1079) followed him successfully, on the way of state reconstruction, who, getting even closer than his predecessors to Hungary and wisely exploiting the conflict between Henry IV and Gregory VII, Grody czerwie ń skie). But the results were short-lived. Once again dynastic dissidents and the discontent of the magnates prevailed over the centralizing forces of the Kingdom. The indignation caused by the cruel torture that the king inflicted on the bishop of Krakow Stanislaus, broke out in a revolt, and Boleslaus had to seek refuge abroad. Decades of forced surrender to the Germans, Bohemians and Russians followed; of superiority of a tycoon over the prince; of dynastic struggles and consequent division of the Polish lands into two territories. By the energetic Boleslao III Boccatorta (1102-1138), Poland was still saved from disintegration, but also this prince, who was able to reconfirm the independence of Poland from the empire (victories over Henry V in Silesia), who subdued to his domain, but as an imperial fiefdom, Pomerania, and promoted its Christianization, did not feel faced with the ever-increasing internal difficulties of transmitting all of Poland to a single heir, especially since there was no stable order of succession in the Piasti dynasty. Shortly before his death, with a public act, guaranteed by the ecclesiastical and lay authorities and confirmed by the pope, Boleslaus III instituted a new order of succession which, while pleasing the members of the ruling dynasty, should have at least maintained the integrity of the state. In this will, which distinguished the succession to the throne based on the seniorate from the territorial inheritance extended to all the sons of Boleslaus, Poland was divided into four territories, made up of hereditary duchies: Silesia, Masovia, a large part of Greater Poland, and the area of Sandomierz and Lublin.
The effects of this complicated succession system were disastrous: the antagonisms between the sons of Boleslao Boccatorta were stirred up, the particular interests of the individual territories rekindled and they themselves exposed to further divisions, the power and intrusiveness of the aristocracy increased. In this state of affairs a strong and dignified policy vis-à-vis the Germans, who at that time were definitely taking over Brandenburg and other lands beyond the Oder still inhabited by Slavic populations, was impossible: in 1157 the second son of Boleslao Boccatorta – Boleslao IV (Ricciuto) – had to humble himself before Frederick Barbarossa and accept Poland from him as an imperial fief. The succession system itself did not last long. In 1177, an older brother still living, s’ installed on the throne of Krakow the youngest son of Boleslaus III, Casimir the Just (1177-1194) who, supported by the aristocracy and the high clergy, suppressed the seniorate (conference of Łęczyca, 1180) and consolidated his power over the duchy of Krakow, obtaining the right of succession for his descendants on the basis of primogeniture.