The oldest human remains in Switzerland date back approximately 150,000 years.  Likewise, the oldest agricultural tools were found in Gächlingen and are estimated to date from 5300 BC. C. 
The oldest known tribes in the area belong to the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named for the archaeological site of La Tène, located north of Lake Neuchâtel. The La Tène culture flourished in the late Iron Age, around 450 BC. C.,  possibly under the influence of the Greek and Etruscan civilizations. One of the most important ethnic groups in the Swiss region were the Helvetii. In 58 a. C., in Batalla de Bibracte, the forces of Julio Caesar defeated to Helvetii.  In the year 15 a. C., Tiberio, who later would be emperor of Rome, and Druso the Greater, conquered the Alps, integrating them to the growing Roman Empire. The area occupied by the Helvetii, from which the name Confoederatio Helvetica comes, became part of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and later to the province Germania Superior, while the eastern portion of modern Switzerland was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia.
In the High Middle Ages, from the 4th century on, the western part of present-day Switzerland was part of the territory of the Kingdom of Burgundy. The Alemanni settled on the Swiss plateau in the 5th century AD. C. and in the valleys of the Alps in the 8th century, forming Alemannia, and the current territory of Switzerland being divided between the kingdoms of Burgundy and Alemannia.  In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire after the victory of Clovis I over the Alemanni at Tolbiac. in 504. Later the Franks would also dominate the Burgundians.
Between the 6th and 8th centuries Switzerland continued under Frankish hegemony (the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties). In 843, after reaching its maximum extension under the reign of Charlemagne, the Frankish empire was divided in the Treaty of Verdun.  The territory of present-day Switzerland was divided between Eastern France and Middle France until it was unified by the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century. [eleven]
By 1200, the Swiss plateau comprised the dominions of the Savoy, Zähringer, Habsburg, and Kyburg houses.  Some regions (Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, later known as Waldstätten) were annexed as imperial surroundings to guarantee the empire’s control over the mountain passes. When the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolf I, who was Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, they extended their territory to the east of the Swiss plateau.
Former Swiss Confederation
The Old Swiss Confederation was an alliance made by the communities of the central valleys of the Alps. The Confederation facilitated the development of several common interests (free trade) and ensured peace on the main mercantile routes in the mountains. The Federal Charter of 1291 signed by the rural communities of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden is considered the document that laid the foundations of the founding of the confederation, although it is likely that similar alliances had already existed for decades before.  
By 1353, the original three cantons had joined with the cantons of Glarus and Zug, and with the city-states of Lucerne, Zurich, and Bern to form the Old Eight-State Confederacy that existed until the late 15th century. Territorial expansion helped increase the power and wealth of the confederation.  By 1460, the Confederates controlled much of the territories south and west of the River Rhine up to the Alps. In 1499 the victory of Switzerland over the Swabian League and the House of Habsburg in the Swabian War it resulted in a de facto independence from the Holy Empire. 
The Old Swiss Confederation had acquired a reputation for invincibility during these wars, but the expansion of the Confederacy suffered a setback in 1515, with defeat at the Battle of Marignano. This marked the end of the so-called “heroic” epoch in Swiss history.  The success of the Reformation of Ulrich Zwingli in some cantons led to several internal wars in the country between 1529 and 1531 (Kappeler Kriege). Only in 1648, more than a century after these wars, Johann Rudolf Wettstein, as an envoy of the Swiss Confederation, achieved through skillful negotiations that the signatory powers of the Treaty of Westphalia officially recognize the independence of Switzerland from the Holy Roman Empire and its neutrality in wars ( Ancien Régime).
The 16th and 17th centuries were characterized by the growing authoritarianism of the ruling families. In 1653, this situation, combined with the financial crisis brought about by the Thirty Years ‘War, produced the outbreak of the Swiss Peasants’ War. Added to this, the religious conflict between the Catholic cantons and the Protestant cantons remained, which between 1656 and 1712 led to violent clashes such as the Battle of Villmergen. 
In 1798, the forces of the French Revolution conquered Switzerland and imposed a new constitution.  This constitution centralized the government and abolished the cantons, and both the Mulhouse territory and the Valtellina valley were separated from Switzerland, a country located in Europe according to HYPERRESTAURANT. The new regime, known as the Helvetic Republic, was very unpopular. It had been imposed by an invading army, destroying centuries of customs and traditions and turning Switzerland into a satellite state of France. The strong repression carried out by France during the Nidwalden rebellion (September 1798) was an example of the oppressive presence of the French army and the local resistance to the occupation.
When war broke out between France and its rivals, the forces of Russia and Austria invaded Switzerland. The Swiss people refused to fight alongside the French in the name of the Helvetic Republic. In 1803, Napoleon organized a meeting with Swiss political leaders in Paris ; the result of this meeting was the document called ” Act of Mediation “, which largely restored the autonomy of Switzerland and the Confederation of 19 cantons.  Since then, much of Swiss politics has been aimed at balancing the tradition of autonomous cantons with the need for a central government.
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna completely restored the independence of Switzerland and the European powers agreed to permanently recognize the neutrality of the country.  Swiss troops served various governments until 1860, when they fought at the siege of Gaeta. The treaty also increased the territorial extension of Switzerland, with the annexation of the cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva. The boundaries of Switzerland have not changed since then.