State structure and political system of Cyprus
Cyprus is a democratic constitutional state with a republican form of government. The Constitution adopted in 1960 is in force (in the occupied territory – in 1975 and 1983). Check equzhou for political system of Cyprus.
Administrative division – 6 districts: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos (in the occupied territory – Kyrenia, almost completely Famagusta and small parts of Larnaca and Nicosia).
The largest cities: Nicosia, Limassol (161 thousand), Larnaca (72 thousand), Paphos (47 thousand).
The head of state is the president, since March 2003 Tassos Papadopoulos. According to the Constitution, the president must be a Greek by nationality, the vice-president – a Turk. Both are elected by the population for a term of 5 years; the president – the Greek community, the vice-president – the Turkish. The powers of the president are limited to granting the vice president the right to veto over major issues of public policy. Currently, the post of Vice President is not filled until the settlement of the problem of northern Cyprus. The highest legislative body is the unicameral parliament – the House of Representatives, consisting of 80 deputies elected by direct universal suffrage for 5 years (56 deputies are elected by the Greek community, 24 deputies by the Turkish community, and at the moment only Greek deputies are occupied). The highest body of executive power is the Council of Ministers, headed and appointed by the president (together with the vice president). The highest court is the Supreme Court.
Since 1963, representatives of the Turkish community have not taken part in the activities of the parliament, government, Supreme Court, and other state bodies. Since 1975, President Rauf Denktash has been acting in the occupied territory with his Council of Ministers.
Outstanding statesmen: Archbishop Makarios III (1913-77) – the first president of the country, who consistently defended the principle of the independence of Cyprus.
Main parties: Democratic Party, DIKO (Tassos Papadopoulos); Democratic Union, DISI (Nikos Anastasiadis); Progressive Party of the Working People, AKEL (Communists) (Dimitrios Christofias); Social Democratic Movement, KISOS (former United Democratic Union of the Center, EDEK) (Eannakis Omirou). The main problem in the foreign and domestic policy of Cyprus is the settlement of the situation with the northern occupied territories. Both sides declare readiness for cooperation, while putting forward mutually unacceptable conditions. Efforts are being made to resolve this problem within the framework of the UN. In foreign policy, Cyprus focuses on the EU in connection with the forthcoming entry into this organization.
Armed forces: Greek Cypriot National Guard (including naval and air forces). Military duty – young men from 18 years old. Military spending 4.2% of GDP.
Cyprus has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in August 1960).
Science and culture of Cyprus
Education is compulsory until the age of 15. The education system consists of four stages: primary, primary, secondary and higher. 9 public and 20 private higher education institutions. The largest is the University of Cyprus (1992). 37 students per 1000 people Population (2001). Public spending on education – 5.7% of GDP (2001).
Literature exists predominantly in Greek. The first monuments of Cypriot literature are the Cypriot Tales by Stasin (seventh to sixth centuries BC) and the Homeric Hymns in honor of Aphrodite. In the 15th century the historical chronicles of L. Machairas are recorded. Church literature was developed by Neophytos (12th century) and Patriarch Gregory II of Constantinople (13th century). The development of the literature of Cyprus was delayed by the Turkish conquest. A new rise falls on the horse. 19th century The most famous authors: V. Mikhailidis (1850-1918), D. Libertis (1866-1937), N. Nikolaidis (1884-1956).
In the 4th c. BC e. – 4th c. n. e. the architecture and fine arts of Cyprus developed under the influence of Greek classical and Hellenistic, and then Roman art (the monuments of Paphos, Kourion, Salamis, etc.). Early Byzantine art is represented by outstanding mosaics from the pre-iconoclastic period of the 6th-7th centuries. (Church of Panagia Angeloktista c. Kiti). Monuments of Byzantine architecture – churches and monasteries. Some have preserved frescoes from the 12th-15th centuries. (Church of Panagia tou Araku in Pitsilia, church in Asinou, monastery of St. Neophyte ca. Paphos). By the 13th-15th centuries. include Gothic monuments (temples in Nicosia and Famagusta). Con. 15th c. – the heyday of the Cypriot school of icon painting (under the influence of the Italian Renaissance). During the period of the Turkish conquest, mosques were built (Hala Sultan Tekke ca. Larnaca). The construction of Orthodox monasteries in the mountainous parts of the country continues. The foundations of modern fine art in Cyprus were laid at the beginning. 20th century circle of A. Diamantis – the group “Generation of Fathers”.