Slovakia is a democratic parliamentary republic. The Constitution of 1992 is in force. Administratively, Slovakia is divided into 8 regions and 79 districts. State power at the regional and district levels is exercised by the respective administrations; territorial self-government at the level of regions, in cities and rural communities is implemented through local governments, primators (mayors) and elders. Check computerminus for political system of Slovakia. The largest cities: Bratislava, Kosice, Nitra, Preshov, Zilina, Banska Bystrica. The highest legislative body is the unicameral parliament (National Council of the Slovak Republic), consisting of 150 deputies elected for a term of 4 years. Parliamentary elections are based on universal suffrage and proportional representation; the right to nominate candidates for deputies belongs to political parties, movements and coalitions. Initially, elections were held in 4 multi-member constituencies; since 1998, a single (nationwide) multi-member constituency has been established. In order to avoid excessive party fragmentation of the Parliament, electoral barriers are established for political parties. According to the amendments made to the electoral law in 1999, in order to be represented in parliament, a party must win at least 5% of the vote, coalitions of 2-4 parties – 7%, coalitions of 5 or more parties – 10%. The supreme body of executive power is the government headed by the prime minister and accountable to the National Council. Formed on a parliamentary basis (parliamentary majority); the president of the country appoints the prime minister and, on his recommendation, members of the cabinet of ministers. The constitution provides for the political responsibility of the government to the parliament: the latter can express a vote of no confidence in the government, the government can ask the parliament to express confidence in it. The head of state is the president with a 5-year term of office. Since 1999, the political role of the president has somewhat increased due to the introduction of universal and direct presidential elections (until 1999, the president was elected by parliament with a 3/5 majority vote) and the expansion of his powers in the event of a conflict between the legislative and executive branches of government. The president can dissolve parliament in three cases: if, after a vote of no confidence in the government, three successive attempts by deputies to elect a new government are unsuccessful; if parliament fails to pass a government-backed bill, associated with a vote of confidence; if Parliament fails to pass any bill within 3 months. In the parliamentary elections in 2002, 7 parties overcame the 5% barrier: DZDS (19.5% of the vote), the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union (SDKhS) (15.1%), the Smer party (13.5%), Party of the Hungarian Coalition (PVK) (11.2%), Christian Democratic Movement (HDD) (8.3%), Alliance of the New Citizen (AN) (8.0%), Communist Party of Slovakia (KPS) – 6.3 %. As a result of the elections, 4 centre-right parties (SDKhS, PVK, Christian Democracy and ANG), which received 78 seats out of 150, agreed to create a coalition to form a government. P. Hruszowski (CDM) became the Chairman of the National Council of the new convocation. The Cabinet of Ministers, formed by the ruling coalition, was headed by M. Dzurinda (SDHS). According to the results of the first direct and general presidential elections in the history of Slovakia, held in May 1999, R. Schuster was elected president of the country.
The party system consists mainly of small parties; its fragmentation in the 1990s. increased: in the first national elections held in 1994, 18 political entities (parties, movements and coalitions) took part, in the elections in 2002 – 25. Since none of the parties was able to win elections and ensure the work of the government without joining a coalition, all cabinets in the 1990s. were coalition. Political parties and movements: DZDS emerged in 1991 after the collapse of the OPN, chairman V. Mechiar; CDM founded in 1989, chairman P. Hruszowski; The SDHS was formed in 1999 as a result of the split of the Christian Democrats, chaired by M. Dzurinda; party “Smer”, chairman R. Fico; PVC, chairman B. Bugar; eng, chairman P. Rushko; KPS, chairman J. Shevts; Party of Civil Accord founded in 1998, chairman P. Gamzik; Slovak National Party founded in 1989, chairman J. Slot; Party of the Left Democrats, chairman P. Kontsos; Democratic Party, chairman L. Kanik; Liberal Democratic Union, chairman J. Buday; Slovak National Party, chairman A. Malikova and others. At the end. In 2001, 16,849 non-governmental organizations were registered in Slovakia, of which only 1.3-2 thousand organizations (8-12%) were characterized by active regular activity. Among the business organizations seeking to participate in the political life of the country are the Association of Employers of Slovakia, the Association of Towns and Villages (ZMOS), the unions of workers in the metallurgical industry KOVO and METALURG. Trade Union Confederation (KOZ) founded in 1990, unites 42 trade unions; in 2000 there were 700 thousand people in trade union organizations in Slovakia. (in 1990 – 2.5 million people). The Armed Forces of Slovakia include the Ground Forces, the Air Force and the Air Defense Forces, the Border Guards, and the Civil Defense Forces. The number of Armed Forces in 2001 amounted to 33 thousand people. (in 1995 – 47 thousand people), incl. the number of Ground Forces is 19.8 thousand people, the Air Force is 10.2 thousand people. Reserve (national guard) 20 thousand people. Paramilitary formations 2.6 thousand people, incl. internal security forces 1.4 thousand people. In preparation for joining NATO, Slovakia with con. 1990s began the reorganization of the Armed Forces and the modernization of the material and technical base of the army. Military appropriations in the amount of 1.89% of GDP (approx. 400 million US dollars per year) are provided for 2001-04: up to 25% of these funds are supposed to be directed to the modernization of weapons, the rest of the funds – to the maintenance of equipment and personnel. In subsequent years, military spending will be increased to 2% of GDP. Since 2002, a transition has begun from universal military duty to recruiting the armed forces under a contract: by 2006, the army should become fully professional, and its strength should be reduced to 25 thousand people. Slovakia has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (since December 31, 1992 after the division of the Czechoslovakia into two independent states; between the USSR and Czechoslovakia were established on June 9, 1934).