The interaction between government and business is carried out primarily through the unions of entrepreneurs. In 2001, there were 192 business organizations in the country. The most influential of them is the Confederation of British Industry (CBI). Expresses the interests of approx. 200 thousand firms – from the largest TNCs to small companies. They employ 7.5 million people. The PCU includes most business unions and business associations. The most important task of the PBC is to promote the creation of an economic climate favorable for the activities of British business, increasing its competitiveness. Committees and experts of the KBP develop recommendations for the government, participate in the preparation of budget bills, and in the formation of foreign economic policy. Other major business organizations include the Association of British Chambers of Commerce. It provides services to more than 135,000 companies, assists in staff training, promotion of British firms’ products on the foreign market, and access to information necessary for business. Institute of Directors, numbering approx. 53 thousand members, advises directors of companies on issues such as corporate governance, insolvency and bankruptcies, training. The Institute of Directors represents the interests of its members before the authorities in the UK and the EU. The Small Business Federation represents the interests of 160,000 small businesses and self-employed owners and provides them with information on taxation, employment, security, and insurance. advises directors of companies on issues such as corporate governance, insolvency and bankruptcies, and training. The Institute of Directors represents the interests of its members before the authorities in the UK and the EU. The Small Business Federation represents the interests of 160,000 small businesses and self-employed owners and provides them with information on taxation, employment, security, and insurance. advises directors of companies on issues such as corporate governance, insolvency and bankruptcies, and training. The Institute of Directors represents the interests of its members before the authorities in the UK and the EU. The Small Business Federation represents the interests of 160,000 small businesses and self-employed owners and provides them with information on taxation, employment, security, and insurance. Check computerminus for political system of United Kingdom.
A feature of the British labor movement has always been a high proportion of organized wage workers. Trade unions have gained quite a strong position both in relations with employers and in the socio-political life of the country as a whole. In 1979 there were 362 trade unions in the country, covering 54–55 percent of all wage laborers. With the help of tough anti-union laws, the conservatives managed to achieve a significant restriction of the rights and scope of the activities of trade unions. As a result, the number of trade unions decreased – 206 in 2001, the number of members of trade unions decreased – from 13.1 million in 1979 to 7.3 million in 2001, or 27% of the number of employees. The largest trade union association, the British Congress of Trade Unions (TUC), was founded in 1868. It includes 74 trade unions and 6.7 million members. The most important problems of the socio-economic development of the country are discussed at the annual congresses of the TCU. The BKT has traditionally supported and financed the Labor Party. After coming to power, the Laborites announced their intention to somewhat soften the legislation regulating the activities of trade unions. A feature of the British trade union movement is the existence of a widely ramified network of shop stewards (shop stewards) who are elected directly at their place of work. The main function is the daily protection of workers and employees in relations with the administration, the settlement of labor conflicts. A feature of the British trade union movement is the existence of a widely ramified network of shop stewards (shop stewards) who are elected directly at their place of work. The main function is the daily protection of workers and employees in relations with the administration, the settlement of labor conflicts. A feature of the British trade union movement is the existence of a widely ramified network of shop stewards (shop stewards) who are elected directly at their place of work. The main function is the daily protection of workers and employees in relations with the administration, the settlement of labor conflicts.
In fiscal year 2002/03, military spending was £24.2 billion. Art., in the 2003/04 financial year – 25.4 billion. In 2002 they were equal to 2.32% of GDP. In 2001, the strength of the Armed Forces was: fleet 42.9 thousand, land army 114.0 thousand, air force 54.0 thousand, regular reserves 234.7 thousand, volunteers 47.3 thousand. 111 were employed in the Armed Forces, 7 thousand civilians. The UK is a nuclear power. In 2002, 4 submarines equipped with 48 Trident-P ballistic missiles were in service. The UK maintains a nuclear arsenal of approximately 185 warheads. Its role in building up the potential of NATO’s rapid reaction forces is great. Great Britain is in favor of strengthening the European pillar of this organization. British military contingents are stationed in Cyprus, East Timor, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bosnia and Kosovo.
In domestic politics, the key to understanding many of the features of the modern socio-political structure of British society is given by such features of its development as evolution, “traditionalism” and the comparative stability of political institutions. For centuries, British political culture has been characterized by moderation and the organic weaving of new elements into existing structures, the combination and fusion of traditional and modern values, the gradual mastery of the ruling elite skills and abilities of “coordination of interests” within the framework of democratic institutions. The stability of British society has always rested on a consensus about its fundamental goals and how to achieve them. A characteristic feature of a developed civil society in this country is the law-abidingness of citizens.
Since 1924, the Conservative and Labor parties have alternated in power. From the beginning 1970s Significant support began to receive “third” parties, primarily the Liberal Democratic (until 1988 – Liberal) and the Scottish Nationalists.
In 1979 the neo-conservatives led by M. Thatcher came to power. Among the value orientations of neoconservatism, a special place belonged to individualism, or anti-collectivism. Authoritarian tendencies in public administration intensified; the role of the executive power in the institutions of representation of interests has increased. At the same time, the most important direction of Tory policy was the transformation of the system of state social services, or the “welfare state”: there was a partial denationalization of the health care system; the Conservatives implemented a number of measures aimed at implementing the principle of freedom of choice in schooling and encouraging various types of private insurance.
The Labor Party, which won elections in 1997 and 2001, is implementing a program of reforms designed to significantly update the country’s political system. First of all, they started to implement the constitutional reform. One of the most important directions of this reform is the devolution (decentralization) of power. For many centuries, Great Britain was a unitary state, all major issues were resolved in London. However, in recent years the situation has changed. In 1998, the Northern Ireland Assembly was elected, and in 1999, the National Assembly for Wales and the Scottish Parliament. They are transferred a number of important functions of a socio-economic nature. At the same time, regional autonomy in England itself was developing. Only foreign policy, security issues and tax collection remained in the competence of the central authorities.
Other directions of the reform were the rejection of the hereditary principle of the formation of the House of Lords and the unambiguously majoritarian nature of the country’s electoral system. The Bill of Rights, which makes the legal acts adopted by the world community a part of British law, the Freedom of Information Act, has been passed through Parliament. The constitutional reform is carried out within the framework of the concept of the “third way” as the concept of the internal development of Great Britain. If the first path is neo-liberalism based on the principles of individualism and its British version, Thatcherism, and the second path is traditional socialism and social democracy oriented towards statehood, then the third path is the movement towards a just social order based on universal human values.
At the center of the domestic political life of the country are also the issues of modernizing the systems of healthcare, education, and public transport. British dissatisfaction with the state of these areas of the economy led to a significant defeat of the Labor Party in the local elections in May 2003. The problems associated with Britain’s accession to the euro area are widely discussed. The Labor leadership is in favor of the country’s entry into the EMU in the event of a positive outcome of the referendum on this issue. Dissatisfaction in the country was caused by the government’s decision on the participation of Great Britain in the war in Iraq. A special place in the internal political life of the country is occupied by a peaceful settlement in Ulster. Despite London’s attempts to resolve sectarian disputes in Northern Ireland, bloody clashes between extremist-minded representatives of the Catholic and Protestant populations could not be avoided. The political autonomy of Northern Ireland, established by the 1998 peace agreement, ceased to exist in October 2002 mainly due to the IRA’s unwillingness to disarm.
In foreign policy at the beginning. 21st century Great Britain is undoubtedly one of the five leading developed countries along with the USA, France, Germany and Japan. Moreover, as one of the victorious countries in the 2nd World War, it has some advantages over the last two. Great Britain is a nuclear power, a permanent member of the UN Security Council. From the beginning 1970s it, along with France and Germany, plays a leading role in the EU, although its political influence in this organization is less, and at the same time maintains, albeit in a curtailed form, a “special relationship” with the United States. Great Britain still claims to be a mediator in relations between the Old and New Worlds. Great Britain has the most extensive “economic empire” abroad after the United States, and leads the Commonwealth.
At the same time, over the past decades, there has been a weakening of the UK’s position in the world economy and politics, in the system of international relations. In the 1950s-70s. The British colonial empire finally collapsed. Great Britain had to abandon the old doctrine, according to which it is able to successfully combine 3 roles: the leader of Western Europe, the head of the Commonwealth and the privileged partner of the United States. Britain’s accession to the EU in 1973 was a turning point in the process of shifting to Western Europe the center of gravity of the whole complex of positions of this country abroad. Great Britain began to act as an integral part of the Western European center. At the same time, it continues to take a special position on many fundamental issues of EU development. The peculiarity of the position of Great Britain reflects the specifics of the national political culture, legal thinking, traditions of foreign policy strategy, which for centuries maintained a certain distance between the “island state” and continental Europe. In addition, the stake on European integration is combined with the continued special relations between Great Britain and the United States, which are largely determined by the common language, closeness of traditions and culture.
The Labor government that came to power in May 1997 emphasizes the key role of nation-states in modern Europe and rejects federalist ideals of integration. In all areas of EU policy, it places the principle of subsidiarity at the forefront and upholds the principle of a clear distinction between the three pillars of the EU. Recognizing the need for greater flexibility within the EU, Labor advocates maintaining the principle of unanimity and approving joint actions within the framework of cooperation. The government emphasizes the key role of NATO in ensuring the defense of Western Europe. The UK has contributed a large contingent of troops to the European Rapid Reaction Force.
In the 2nd floor. 1990s – early. 2000s Anglo-American ties were significantly strengthened. Common approaches and coinciding interests prevailed in international affairs and in the field of security. This manifested itself during the Kosovo conflict and especially during the war in Iraq in March-April 2003, when London most consistently supported Washington’s position. After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 in New York, the main activity of the government in the field of foreign policy and security policy was switched to the fight against terrorism and support for this fight by the Commonwealth countries.
In relations with the Russian Federation, the Blair government adhered to the line of constructive interaction. Using its special relationship with the US and its membership in the EU, Britain sought to play the role of a kind of link between the West and Russia. Relations between the two countries have been marred by Britain’s stance on the UN’s role in managing the Iraqi crisis.
Great Britain has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation; installed from the USSR on February 2, 1924.